The Art of Seeing. The Month of Tammuz.

Our Rabbi’s  have trained us to see around corners. To be a Jew one must have the ability to see what no one else can see. A Jew must take the broken pieces of this world and put them back together. It is in the darkness that the Jewish people shine.

The month of Tammuz  is the month of seeing.  Seeing is a very dangerous thing if one does not understand how to see.  for the non-Jewish world everything in this month may seem to be chaotic and disastrous.  For the Jew whose eyes are trained there is clarity both in seeing and hearing. This is a very dangerous month for the Jewish people. It is in this month that our eyes are sharpened  and our site is perfected.

I’m calling all Jews to intensify their prayers during this time of war in Israel. If you are a Jew  who has not been connected to his Jewish heritage and the Jewish people, it is a time for you to return Klal Yisrael.   The whole world at this time  is turning its attention to the land of Israel and the destruction of the Jewish people. The Jewish people at this time needs every Jewish soul to join Klal Yisrael and to stand with her as her light stands against and in the darkness.
May Hashem protects our soldiers as they fight for freedom to live without rockets being rained down upon us every day. May the Guardian of Israel, protect the remnants of Israel and let them not be destroyed, for those who say, Shema Israel.

 

Nazarean Codicil Colossians 2:16-23

.16Therefore let no one [who is a Gentile] but the body of Messiah (the Jewish people) pass judgment on you in questions of food and drink, or with regard to a festival or a New Moon or a Sabbath.
.17For these are a shadow (prophecies) of things yet to come.
.18Let no one disqualify you, insisting on asceticism and worship of messengers (i.e. the sun and the moon), going on in detail about visions, puffed up without reason by his sensuous mind, .19and not holding fast to the Head, from whom the whole body, nourished and knit together through its joints and ligaments, grows with a growth that is from God.20 If with Messiah you died to the elemental spirits of the world, why, as if you were still alive in the world, do you submit to [pagan] regulations–.21″Do not handle, Do not taste, Do not touch”.22(referring to things that all perish as they are used)–according to human precepts and teachings?.23These have indeed an appearance of wisdom in promoting self-made religion and asceticism and severity to the body, but they are of no value in stopping the indulgence of the flesh.

 

The Month of Tammuz
According to The Book of Formation (Sefer Yetzirah)

According to Sefer Yetzirah, to each month of the Jewish calendar there corresponds a letter of the Hebrew alphabet, a zodiac sign, one of the twelve tribes of Israel, a sense, and a controlling limb of the body.

Tamuz is the fourth of the twelve months of the Jewish calendar.

The month of Tamuz begins the “season” (tekufah) of the summer. The three months of this season, Tamuz, Av and Elul, correspond to the three tribes of the camp of Reuben–Reuben, Simeon and Gad–who were situated to the south).

Tamuz is the month of the sin of the golden calf, which resulted in the breaking of the Tablets. On that very day, the 17th of Tamuz, begins the three week period (ending on the 9th of Av) which commemorates the destruction of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem.

This is the month that the spies sent by Moses traveled through the land of Israel to see it and report to the people. (They returned on the eve of the 9th of Av).

Letter: Chet )ח(

The form of the letter chet is composed of the two previous letters of the Hebrew alef-bet, the vav and the zayin (corresponding to the two previous months of Iyar and Sivan) connected from above by a thin “bridge.” In relation to the sense of sight, the form of the chet represents the dynamic of spiritual light being emitted from the eyes (the vav) and physical light returning from the object observed, to the eyes (the zayin).

The word Tamuz reads in Hebrew: “tam”–”connect together,” “consummate”–vav zayin -the two letters that together form the chet.

Mazal: Cancer

One of the meanings of the root of sartan, seret, is a visual “strip,” in general, or (as in modern Hebrew) a “film”

The spiritual sense of sight of Tamuz is the ability to “see through” physical reality to behold its Divine source. In accordance with this thought, the word sartan is understood as being composed of two words–sar tan–which literally reads: “remove the body” (in order to reveal the soul), i.e. remove the outer “shell” of reality (by means of the power of concentrated sight) in order to reveal reality’s inner “fruit” and life-force.

Tribe: Reuben

The name Reuben comes from the root “to see,” the sense of Tamuz.
The precious stone of Reuben in the breast-plate of the high priest is the odem, the ruby (from Reuben), which due

to its brilliant red color (odem means red) is the most sensually visible of the stones.

Red is the most seductive of all colors, implying either the fall of man (in Hebrew odem [red] has the same spelling as adam [man]), as in the sin of the golden calf, or the ultimate rise and rectification of man, with the coming of Mashiach.

Sense: Sight

The summer (the period of Tamuz) is the “holiday” of the eyes. It is the time that one must “guard” his eyes to see only that which is good (in the world in general and in his fellow man in particular) and modest. The ability to guard and focus one’s eyesight correctly is the rectified “sense” of sight.

At the end of Moses’ blessing Israel he said (Deuteronomy 33:28): “betach badad ein Yaacov–sure, alone, is the eye of Jacob.” The word betach, “sure,” is an acronym for three words: bracha tov chayim, blessing good and life. These are the three focus-points of rectified eyesight, as is said (Deuteronomy 11:26): “See, I give before you today blessing and curse. The blessing…,” and subsequently (Deuteronomy 30:15-19): “See, I have given before you today life and good, and death and evil…and you shall chose life.” In relation to these three one must train one’s eyes (both spiritual and physical) to see only the inner positive dimension of reality and not to focus upon reality’s outer, negative “shell.”

This is the meaning of “sure, alone, is the eye of Jacob.” The sense of the Jewish eye (“the eye of Jacob”) is to only (“alone”) see that which is “sure”–G-d’s blessing, good and life.

Controller: Right Hand

The right hand, in general, and its index finger, in particular, serves to direct and focus one’s eyesight.

When reading the Torah scroll, it is a custom to point at every word with a silver “finger.” It is also a custom to use the right hand to make signs to indicate the cantillation nuances for the reader of the Torah.

The wedding ring is placed by the groom on the index finger of the bride’s right hand. This elevates the couple to the level of “my dove” (Song of Songs 5:2), the intense expression of love transmitted by the never ceasing gaze of the eyes one to the other (turning the eyes as red as a ruby)–”your eyes are as doves,” (Song of Songs 5:12)

 

This study was written by

Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David

(Greg Killian).

Why Be Jewish?

My Journey from Christianity to Judaism

The Torah quotes Balaam as saying, הֶן־עָם לְבָדָד יִשְׁכֹּן וּבַגּוֹיִם לֹא יִתְחַשָּׁב׃   ” It (Israel) is a nation that dwells in solitude and is not to be reckoned among the nations. ” Israel is a nation alone that does not intermingle with other nations.

Why is it necessary that we be a nation alone and why have we, throughout our history, always been the outsider and the foreigner?

 The role of Klal  Israel

the Jewish perspective regarding other nations/ religions is unique. We do not believe that other nations who do not follow our religion have no purpose in the general scheme of creation. Most of the religions believe that those who do not share their beliefs are denied salvation and may be considered infidels whose lives have little or no value, souls that are doomed or, at best, souls that can never achieve eternity.  We do not share this attitude.  We believe that all of mankind, Jews and non-Jews, were created b’tzelem Elokim- in the image of God- and deserve respect. We are forbidden to steal from non-Jews, to cheat him, or to mislead him in any way, even if our action cause him no loss or harm. Chazal teach us that non-Jews could have a share in the Olam Haba if they adhere to the 7 Noahide laws.  However, we also believe that Klal Yisrael  is the Am HaNivchar-the Chosen People- and, as such, we must understand the unique role of Klal Yisrael.

We were chosen to have a special relationship with Hashem and to serve him in a very  specific  and unique manner. However, this does not preclude the significance of non-Jews. There is an interrelationship between Jews and non-Jews. The purpose of Klal Yisrael is not merely self-centered on his own avodat Hashem, either as individuals or as a nation. We have a responsibility to other nations as well. The Navi says:  in Isaiah 49 verse 6, וּנְתַתִּיךָ לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם לִהְיוֹת יְשׁוּעָתִי עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ׃ – “I will make you a light for the nations, so that my salvation may extend to the ends of the earth.”

  This is the meaning of the verse “וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ ” – “You will be for me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.” The relationship between Jews and other nations is comparable to the relationship between the Kohanim (Priests) and other Jews. Kohanim Were given task that are different from those of other Jews and Kohanim were sanctified because their role in the service of Hashem is unique.

This website is dedicated to that role.  To work in harmony Jew and non-Jew together to make this world in the image of Hashem.

 

No one is good except the ONE G-D

NAZAREAN TALMUD

SIDRA OF B’MIDBAR (NUMBERS) 5:11 –6:21

“ISH ISH KI TISHTE ISHTO” “[WHEN] ANY MAN’S WIFE GOES ASTRAY” BY: H. EM RABBI DR. ADON ELIYAHU BEN ABRAHAM &
H. EM. HAKHAM DR. YOSEF BEN HAGGAI
HAKHAM SHAUL SCHOOL OF REMES ROMANS
Mishnah א:א

It was for this reason; God gave them over to their corrupt passions. For their women exchanged the natural17 relations18 for those contrary to nature,19 and likewise also the males, abandoning the natural relations with the female, were inflamed in their desire toward one another, males with males committing the shameless deed,20 and receiving in themselves the penalty that was necessary for their error.

dante-and-virgil-in-hell-william_adolphe_bouguereau_18251905

COMMENTARY TO HAKHAM TSEFET’S SCHOOL OF PESHAT

As we will see, Hakham Tsefet and Hakham Shaul are in perfect harmony with the Torah Seder.

We must keep in mind that Hakham Tsefet through his amanuensis Mordechai (Mark’s) text is Peshat. Many scholars completely abuse this textual narrative of Mordechai. Their inclusion of thoughts from other accounts only serves to confuse and clutter the real points Hakham Tsefet is trying to make. Let us follow the Peshat through the narrative and allow it to speak for itself.

We see Yeshua and his talmidim leaving the house where they have been staying for a period. As they leave someone, who remains unidentified runs up to Yeshua with a provocative question.

Hakham Tsefet through his amanuensis Mordechai (Mark) looks at the “one who runs to Yeshua” very simply. We have no real qualifying data from Mordechai. Mordechai simply concludes that he “owned much property.” Hakham Tsefet’s narrative does NOT say that he is a RICH YOUNG RULER! The text as we will see simply concluded that he owned much property. Furthermore, we have no identity. Therefore, we cannot draw any specific conclusions as to his identity. Other sources may “hint” to his identity, as they should. Likewise, we have no indication as to the age of the individual. Therefore, we cannot ascertain age to determine if he was young or old. To bring other accounts of this story into Peshat is to reverse the hermeneutic process, which is impossible.

Looking at the narrative, we can draw some of this person’s characteristics.

  1. He understands that appropriate way to address a Hakham.
  2. His is educated in the protocols on how to conduct himself in the presence of Wisdom
  3. He is concerned about his spirituality and wants to partake in the Olam HaBa.
  4. He is most likely of Pharisaic persuasion (he believes in the afterlife and is approaching Yeshua, a Pharisee)

The individual honored Yeshua. We noted that he is acquainted with the appropriate protocols of wisdom. He addresses Yeshua as “Good Rabbi” [Hakham]. Another possibility to this translation is “Kind Rabbi” or Rabbi of Chesed, i.e. merciful Rabbi. Scholars point out that this is uncommon in Jewish literature.21 We must deduce that it was used in some measure since it is used here. Yeshua does not rebuke the individual for his speech. Yeshua uses this opportunity to launch his discussion on relevant issues related to the question. Nevertheless, the individual seems to refer to goodness and kindness in his address.

ONE G-D!

Our translation in English is a bit ambiguous. The Greek phrase (text) “οὐδεὶς ἀγαθὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ θεός” can be translated “no one is good except the ONE God.” εἷς ὁ θεός literally means “the One God.” Therefore, the thought that we derive from this is multifaceted.

  1. Only the One God is merciful and compassionate.
  2. There is ONLY ONE God!
  3. There are not two Gods!
  4.  There are not three Gods!

D’barim (De) 6:4″Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God, the LORD is one!”

The text mandates the above translation. Yeshua’s words “no one is good except the ONE God” mandate our understanding that he is NOT equating himself with G-d in any way. How it is that Scholars muddle these words to fit their own meaning is beyond our understanding. Peshat DEMANDS our understanding that Yeshua does not claim Deity for himself here.

The Greek word μὴ (me) is an expression, which establishes contrast. The established contrast is between Yeshua and the ONE G-d! Yeshua shows and says that he is not G-d. As we will see below he is G-d’s agent, but not “G-d.”

The Mitzvoth cited by Yeshua are understood as a “pars pro toto.” Yeshua is not singling out a few of his favorite mitzvoth. However, we can now see that Yeshua first refers to the Shema and the Unity of G-d and then proceeds with his list of other mitzvoth. What we find of interest is the fact that Hakham Tsefet cites the mitzvoth that directly connect with the present Torah Seder.

SHOMER

ἐφυλαξάμην –ephulaxamen from φυλάσσω –phulasso is parallel to the Hebrew word Shomer. I find it so very interesting that ׁשמרshomer is first found in the language of Gan Eden.

׃ ּה ָֽר ָ מ ָׁש ל ּו ּה ִ֖ד ָ ב ָע ל ן ֶד ֵ֔ע ־ ן ַג ב ּו ה ֵ֣ח ִנ ַי ַו ם ָ֑ד ָ ָא ָֽה ָ ־ ת ֶא ם י ִ֖ה ִ ֹל ֱא ה ָ֥ו ָ ה י ח ַּ֛ק ַ ִיַו

B’resheet (Gen) 2:1515And LORD G-d took the man and put him into the garden of Eden to work it and keep it.

Adam was placed in the Garden to serve and “to exercise great care over.” We noticed two things here.

  1. Adam is to exercise great care in protection of Gan Eden
  2. Shomer then means to take great care over

Abot 2:2Rabban Gamaliel, son of R. Judah the Patriarch, says, “Fitting is learning in Torah along with a craft, for the labor put into the two of them makes one forget sin. “And all learning of Torah which is not joined with labor is destined to be null and cause sin. “And all who work with the community— let them work with them for the sake of Heaven. “For the merit of their fathers strengthens them, and their [fathers’] righteousness stands forever. “And as for you, I credit you with a great reward, as if you had done [all of the work required by the community on your own merit alone].”

The Sages saw it befitting men to labor to earn his living and study Torah and maintain balance between the both of them. The two occupations go hand in hand. Gan Eden is a picture of the Olam HaBa. Consequently, the vocabulary of the text is like a weaver’s rug, woven in and out of its varied nuances. Of course, we can read the book of Mark in a matter of minutes due to its overwhelming simplicity. One cannot be an active part of a community without having a balance between these two matters.

We derive something here that is interesting, building on last week’s thoughts and comments, the individual is beyond “bar mitzvah” age. The individual not only has been “Shomer Shabbat,” he has been so since his “Bar Mitzvah.” Again, we note his overwhelming concern for his spirituality. His spirituality is carefully guarded and he wishes to know if he is in any way lacking anything that would make him a true Tsaddiq. The Master presents a challenge to us all in saying, come and walk as I walk accepting your responsibility!

 

COMMENTARY TO HAKHAM SHAUL’S SCHOOL OF REMES IMMORALITY AND IDOLATRY

When we take into account the genius of the Nazarean Hakhamim, we are often astounded at their mental enormity. Hakham Shaul makes an allegorical connection to the Torah Seder’s discussion of the Sotah. In Midrashic terms sexual immorality (adultery) conceived of as “idolatry.” Hakham Shaul directly connects idolatry with sexual immorality and covetousness in his Igeret to the Colossians.22 In one sense, the link between sexual immorality and idolatry could not be more concrete when speaking of Rome. Pagan temples were often the venue for illicit sexual activities. In the Roman world, religious prostitution was commonly practiced by the cults of the ancient Near Eastern fertility religions, and it was a problem for the B’ne Yisrael from the moment they entered into Eretz Yisrael. However, Hakham Shaul’s allegory deals with things greater than pagan temple activities. In fact, the Peshat readings of this pericope have only a vague connection to the true meaning of the pericope. Hakham Shaul is adamant about spiritual fidelity in conjunction with the Torah Seder and the allegorical text before us. In a matter of speaking, we can see Hakham Shaul’s “Rabbinic fence.” What is evident in the literality of the text is that within the context of an honorable marriage there is no association with the present charges brought against Roman Gentile world. The so-called “works of the flesh” in Hakham Shaul’s Igeret to the Galatians23 all relate to idolatry. In his Igeret to the Ephesians Hakham Shaul calls the covetous person an idolater.

Eph 5:5 For you already know this, that no fornicator, or unclean person, or greedy one who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the Kingdom/Governance of Messiah and of God (through the Hakhamim and Bate Din as opposed to human kings).24

Hakham Shaul’s comments in the present pericope show that spiritual fidelity within the marriage will overcome all of the mentioned obstacles. The punishment for spiritual infidelity is found in the readings we had just a few weeks ago.
Romans 1:21 Because although they knew God, they did not honor Him as God or give Him thanks, but they became vain30 (futile) in their reasoning,31 and their unteachable32 minds (hearts33) were darkened.

However, we must understand that the narrative Hakham Shaul is presenting has little to do with the apparent immorality that would be discussed in a Midrashic setting. So, what is it that Hakham Shaul is saying allegorically?

MARRIAGE AND RESTRAINED POWER

The missing part of the equation in our Remes teachings this week is an honorable marriage. In a manner of speaking, we can see that Hakham Shaul is teaching us the result of an unstable marital bed. Furthermore, we cannot use the present pericope to point at every citizen of Rome saying that they are sexually immoral. Therefore, we need to look at the text from an allegorical perspective if we wish to understand Hakham Shaul’s thoughts.

1 Corinthians 7:3 The husband must fulfill his duty to his wife, and likewise also the wife to her husband. The wife does not have authority over her own body, but the husband does; and likewise the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife does.

The allegorical implications of this passage are beyond the scope of our discussion. However, we can make a simple note that a man’s priority is seeing to the (sexual) needs of his wife. And, the reverse is equally true. The wife must render due benevolence to her husband. In other words, the husband has no ability to gratify himself, and for the wife the same is true. The beauty of a wonderful marriage is that both partners are doing everything within their power to gratify their partner’s needs. Therefore, we can see that marriage is a picture of restrained power. The husband restrains his personal desire by giving to his wife and the wife restrains herself in giving to her husband. In this analogy, we can begin to see what Hakham Shaul is speaking of in his allegory of Romans 1:26-27.

CONTRARY TO NATURE

As we have discussed on a number of occasions, G-d has invested in the earth specific powers and abilities.34 However, the present pericope extends beyond the abilities of the earth. By “nature,” Hakham Shaul is pointing to everything in the cosmos that bears influence on humankind. By mentally reflecting on the spheres in the heavens, we can see how things are to function on the mundane plane. Contradiction of nature therefore has application that is more mundane.

A part of “Patach Eliyahu” reads, “Anyone who causes these Ten Sefirot to diverge from one another is regarded as if he had caused a divergence within You.” By understanding the “Hint” (Remes) of the ten sefirot, we understand how the power/authority of G-d is apportioned within the realm of an Esnoga. Disruption of order within the Esnoga is tantamount to causing the divergence within the realm of the Divine. The model of the ten sefirot is an example of balanced power evenly distributed. Now we can dissect Hakham Shaul’s words.

“For their women exchanged the natural relations for those contrary to nature” and likewise the males, abandoning the natural relations with the female, were inflamed in their desire toward one another, males with males committing the shameless deed.

 

Perhaps we can change the translation slightly so that we can better see what Hakham Shaul is saying.

Chesed cannot reside only with Chesed, and G’vurah cannot only reside with G’vurah. When any authority becomes despotic, the potential for evil is always present and resultant. Yeshua and his talmidim never dispatched talmidim with the same disposition. In other words, the Master always dispatched his talmidim with their equal opposite for the sake of balance and equity. Therefore, the allegory of male with male and female with female is disastrous.

Targum Onkelos D’barim (Deut) 33:2 And he said: The LORD was revealed from Sinai, and the brightness of His glory appeared to us from Seir. He was revealed in His power upon the mountain of Pharan, and with Him were ten thousand Tsadiqim (Hakhamim); He gave us, written with His own right hand (hand of authority), the Law from the midst of the fire.

Governance of the cosmos is under the authority of G-d’s right hand. The intermediaries of G-d’s right hand are none other than the Hakhamim and their talmidim.

The conclusion Hakham Shaul wants us to draw is…

  1. The Esnoga and its officers must bring a balance to the congregation
  2. The Roman Gentiles turning towards G-d were no longer under the authority of other intermediaries andspheres. In joining the Nazareans, they were now under the direct authority of G-d through His agentMessiah.
  3. To seek benefaction and blessing through any other agent is idolatry.

May we found always living balanced lives, amen ve amen!

 

 

 

 

 

 

Just as Jannes (Jannis) and Jambres opposed Moses

 

SCHOOL OF HAKHAM SHAUL’S REMES ROMANS
Mishnah א:א
Because although they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give Him thanks, but they became vain52 (futile) in their reasoning,53 and their unteachable54 minds (hearts55) were darkened. Professing wisdom,56 they acted foolishly,57 and exchanged the glory of the immortal God with the images (idols) of corrupted human58 beings,59 birds, quadrupeds and reptiles.

Romangods-banner

 

b. Shabb. 89a Why was Mount Sinai was also called Mount Horeb? Because desolation [hurbah] to idolaters descended thereon.
 COMMENTARY TO HAKHAM TSEFET’S SCHOOL OF PESHAT

Our job as Nazareans is to be able to explicate the Torah in the same manner that Hakham Tsefet and Hakham Shaul did. In other words, we must have an understanding of the Master is a way that allows us to see the intricate workings of his mind in his talmidim and their writings. As such, this would be a great place for a test. The following question would be the summary of the whole test.

How does the present text of Hakham Tsefet’s Peshat elucidate and connect with the Torah Seder?

Hint #1: P’qod Kol Bekhor Zakhar!

Hint #2: Read last week’s Peshat and Tosefta!

COMMENTARY TO HAKHAM SHAUL’S SCHOOL OF REMES HAKHAM SHAUL’S RESPONSA TO “P’QOD KOL BEKHOR ZAKHAR”

Hakham Shaul’s pericope (Rm. 1:21-23) is perfect parlance of the Torah Seder “P’QOD KOL BEKHOR ZAKHAR.” It is perfectly evident that the pericope of Romans 1:21-23 is a direct expression of “P’QOD KOL BEKHOR ZAKHAR.” and related issues.

pagans-and-christians-united

JEWISH PERSPECTIVE OF THE GENTILE WORLD ROMANS 1:18-32

In dealing directly with the text, we will note the following. The section of Romans 1:18-32 deals with the Jewish perspective of the Gentile world. While some scholars contest this notion, Professor Paula Fredrikson’s article on Judaism and Circumcision notes the Jewish view of the “average Gentile” in the first century. Even though we have cited this reference in the past, we find these comments apropos.

What, on the average, did the average Jew think of the average Gentile? I think that we can rely here on Paul who, even when addressing Gentiles and in some sense acting as their advocate, refers to them, quite unselfconsciously, as ‘sinners’ (Gal.2:15). Their characteristic social and sexual sins—slander, insolence, deceit, malicious gossip, envy, heartlessness, disrespect of parents, homosexual and heterosexual fornication— are the varied expression of a more fundamental spiritual error: they worship idols. Could there be such a thing, then, as a morally good Gentile?60

Fredrikson also notes that there are also arguments for the moral superiority of Gentiles who respect Jews and Judaism within the works of Josephus.61 Furthermore, Hellenistic Jews such as Philo found the “Stranger” who converted to be not only superior to his “pagan” counterparts but being embraced by the loving-kindness of G-d. Jewish acceptance of the “convert” is therefore considered meritorious.62 Consequently, the Gentiles who were “sympathetic” towards the Jewish people were considered to be of a greater moral affluence and worthy of merit. Hakham Shaul may have seen Gentiles that he was addressing in this way. However, what is very evident here is that the view of the Gentiles during the first century tended to be one of disdain and contempt rather than acceptance. The Gentile populace of “Rome” most likely would have found Judaism appealing based on it legal system. This view shows that the Romans considered themselves the vogue society. Acceptance of laws that governed civil and religious life therefore would have been appealing. The civility of Jewish lifestyle would have been a welcomed change from the drunken revelries of Roman debauchery.

Roman acceptance of certain aspects of Hellenistic influence had been a societal elevation. “Rules” and “Laws” for the Hellenist meant morality and civility. Monuments and shrines found listing numerous moral maxims in the middle of Grecian cities attest to this very truth.63 Interestingly, these “moral maxims,” were religious and philosophical in nature. Their sources varied but of greatest interest is the fact that portions came from Persian magi and Jewish Priests.64 The Hellenistic propensity towards high ethic may account for the Legalistic approach of Stephen in 2Luqas (Acts) 6-7and following.

Roman monarchies often pictured and proclaimed themselves gods. This eventually lead to a denigration of the so- called hierarchy among Roman rulers. Even the Roman hierarchy of military was not exempt from having wives, family and children used as depraved sport by their leaders. The grip of paganism was destroyed by true moral civility as modeled by their Jewish subordinates. Code of conduct within family and society were far more appealing than the alternatives. This is not to say that Rome had no strengths worthy of emulation. However, the destruction of Rome was the result of antinomianism.65 The lack of certain legal restraint allowed immoral conduct to bring a deterioration and annihilation from within itself.

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THE DARKENED MIND AND MENTAL FUTILITY, FROM A JEWISH PERSPECTIVE

Ephesians 4:17-19 Now I say this, and testify in the Master, that from now on you cannot walk66 as (some) other Gentiles do (walk), devoid of truth (Torah) in their mind, having a mental disposition full of darkness, alienated (cutoff) from the life  God, their ignorance  is due to an unyielding obstinacy of the mind.  For they, being desensitized, having given themselves up to apostasy, to every kind of impurity.

The consequence of idolatry and rejection of Torah principles results in darkened thinking and thoughts. People prefer a “religion” of their own making rather than the Divine revelation. Thus religion is born, springing from a rejected knowledge of G-d.74 Διαλογισμός – dialogismos in the Nazarean Codicil is only used in the negative sense for evil thoughts or anxious reflection.75 In a sense, the mind of vanity and futility is the judgment G-d has placed on the insolent. This punishment is “middah kneged middah.” The lack of gratitude is punishable through a darkening, retarding of the mind. In rejecting the “Da’at” of G-d the mental faculties are effected. Because there is a lack of honoring G-d in idolatrous and human religion, life is not experienced as a gift from G-d. Therefore, it loses touch with Divine reality and condemns itself to vanity and futility. Cf. Ecc. 1:2 The result or vanity of idolatry is always a “darkening” of the mental facilities. “The relation between sin and mental blindness is that of action and re-action. Each sinful/idolatrous action is cause and effect of mental darkening. Here, the darkening of the intellect is represented as the effect or foolish and wicked speculation; the liar comes to believe his own lie.”76 Knowing G-d demands the appropriate response due to His δοξάζω (glory). In the Jewish mind, “Knowing G-d” demands a specific response. Knowing G-d is tantamount to experiencing G-d. They have in fact experienced Him—His wisdom, power, generosity—in every moment of their existence, though they have not recognized Him. It has been by Him that their lives have been sustained, enriched, bounded. In this limited sense, they have known Him all their lives.77 Because they did not thank G-d as an appropriate response. Men experience the pleasures of “life” and do not give due benevolence to G-d for any of their likings or gifts. The appropriate response is trust and obedience. Men should have recognized their indebtedness to G-d for His loving-generosity.

mtsinai3

THE ALLEGORY OF HAR SINAI

b. Shabb. 89a Why was Mount Sinai was also called Mount Horeb? Because desolation [hurbah] to idolaters descended thereon.

The current pericope of Hakham Shaul’ pericope is perfect parlance of the present Torah Seder. The current pericope of Romans summed in “v23” notes a circumstance that is a play on Psalms 106:20 (LXX 105), which is a reference to the sin of the Golden calf. It may be hard to determine how this fits into the “Jewish perspective” of the Gentile as a “pagan idolater until we know the details. Furthermore, we can see that Hakham Shaul knows the true nature of the sin of the Golden Calf and its relationship “P’qod Kol Bekhor Zakhar,” numbering of all the first-born males.

God now commands Moses to appoint the Levites to serve and minister to Aaron (Num. 3:5–10), as a substitute for the consecrated firstborn in Israel (Num. 3:11–13, 44). This appointment recognizes the Levites’ response to Moses’ rallying call and their consequent execution of Israelites for the sin of the golden calf (Exod. 32:26–29; Deut. 10:8–9). They accordingly are given charge of carrying the Ark of the Covenant that leads the Israelites in the desert and in battle (Num. 10:33–36; Josh. 6) and are assigned as assistants to Aaron

and his sons (Num. 3:9), to attend on and minister to God (1 Chr. 23:28, 32).78

Professing wisdom,79 they acted foolishly,80 and exchanged the glory of the immortal God with the images (idols) of corrupted human beings,81 birds, quadrupeds and reptiles.

2Ti 3:8 Just as aJannes (Jannis)82 and Jambres opposed Moses,83 so these men also oppose the truth, men of depraved mind, rejected concerning faithful obedience to G-d and His Torah

Some scholars point out that Hakham Shaul’s reference to Jannes and Jambres shows his connection with and use of Jewish Liturgy84, i.e. Triennial Torah Reading Cycle. The Timothy passage is especially germane to our present pericope. This is because “Jannes and Jamberes” had full “knowledge” of who G-d was. Hakham Shaul was aware that Jannes (Janis-Jannis) and Jambres opposed Moshe on more than one occasion.

The first occasion:

Targum Pseudo Yonatan Shemot (Ex) 1:15 And Pharoh told that he, being asleep, had seen in his dream, and, behold, all the land of Mizraim was placed in one scale of a balance, and a lamb, the young of a sheep, was ill the other scale; and the scale with the lamb in it overweighed. Forthwith he sent and called all the magicians of Mizraim, and imparted to them his dream. Immediately Jannis and Jambres, the chief of the magicians, opened their mouth and answered Pharoh? A certain child85 is about to be born in the congregation of Israel, by whose hand will be destruction to all the land of Mizraim. Therefore did Pharoh, king of Mizraim, give counsel to the Jehudith midwives, the name of one of whom was Shifra, who is Jokeved, and the name of the other Puvah, who is Miriam her daughter.

Second occasion:
Targum Pseudo Yonatan Shemot (Ex) 7:11 But Pharoh called the hachems and magicians; and they also,

Janis and Jamberes, magicians of Mizraim, did the same by their burnings of divination.
Also relevant to our discussion is the fact that many Gentiles parted from Egypt (Mitzrayim) with the B’ne Yisrael.

Targum Pseudo Yonatan Shemot (Ex) 12:38 and a multitude of strangers, two hundred and forty myriads (thousands), went up with them, and sheep, and oxen, and cattle, very many.

Among those “strangers” were two infamous magicians, named Jannes and Jambres.

JANNES AND JAMBRES, two legendary Egyptian sorcerers whose names appear in various sources as the adversaries of Moses. Jewish tradition seems to identify them with the sorcerers mentioned in Exodus 7:11ff. (cf. Targ. Jon., ibid.). They are also mentioned as the sons of Balaam (Targ. Jon., Num. 22:22; Yal., Ex. 168, 176)

(Tan ., Ki Tissa, 19).86

images (2) Egyptians Magicians

 

The initiative in demanding the idol (of the Golden Calf) is attributed by some rabbis to the mixed multitude who joined the Israelites at the time of the Exodus (Ex. 12:38). Forty thousand of them, accompanied by two Egyptian magicians, Jannes and Mambres, came to Aaron and claimed that it already was the sixth hour of the 40th day since Moses had left, the hour which he previously had designated for his return. They claimed that since he had not yet appeared he would never come. Satan added to the state of helplessness of the people by showing them a vision of Moses’ bier, which convinced them that he had died. Only then did they demand that Aaron produce a god for them (Shab. 89a; Tanh. B., Ex.112–3).87

The truth of Romans 1:18 is now revealed. For the revelation of God’s wrath88 coming from the heavens is against all the wicked89 and unjust men (like Jannes and Jambres) who intentionally suppress90 the truth. This is because even intimate knowledge of God91 is evident to them, because God revealed Himself92 among them.

b. Shabb. 89a One of the Rabbis asked R. Kahana: have you heard what the mountain of Sinai [connotes]… While what was its [real] name? its name was Horeb. Now they disagree with R. Abbahu, For R. Abbahu said: its name was Mount Sinai, and why was it called Mount Horeb? Because desolation [hurbah] to idolaters descended thereon.

Hakham Shaul knows the Aggadah, and the Targum having followed the Jewish liturgical readings of the Torah. Consequently, the Torah, Targum and related materials fashioned the opinion of Hakham Shaul concerning the pagan Gentiles. The “Jewish perspective” of the Gentile as a “pagan idolater was therefore; more than likely the Rabbinic view. Har Sinai is also Horeb because of the desolation of idolaters. Allegorically we take this to mean that the Torah is a means for destroying idolatry and pagan idolaters. We can look at their destruction as if they were destroyed in some horrific punishable way or we can see their destruction in their acceptance of Torah. It seems evident that Hakham Shaul was looking for the latter.

maxresdefault Janis and Jambree

In the end Messianic Judaism and Christianity have suppressed the truth, disregarding the Jewish people.  They have rebelled against the creator’s will.  They have disregarded the true lawgiver of Hashem and place before them their own magicians and storytellers.

In our next article we will show how this rebellion has been for thousands of years and how it is recorded in our Jewish Bible.

Footnotes:

60 Professor Paula Fredrikson, Journal of Theological Studies, N.S. 42 (1991) p534

61 Ibid
62 Philo. The Works of Philo: Complete and Unabridged. New updated ed. Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson Pub, 1993. p. 650

Num 3:40 – 4:16

Ps 92:9-16

Is 66:7-12, 20-23

Mordecai 10:10-12

Romans 1:21-23

63Walbank, F. W. The Hellenistic World. Rev. ed. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, .1993p. 60ff
64Ibid.
65Our reference here is used to denote that opposition to the Torah’s laws of civil morality brought about its own destruction. However, we must note that the “antinomianism” of Rome is not the same as it is in the contemporary world. The Romans of the first century were “lawless” on a level that may not have been specific opposition to the Torah. Only after introduction to the Torah and then its refusal could the Romans be considered “antinomian.” The true idea of antinomianism in its contemporary meaning did not exist until Martin Luther.
66περιπατέω –peripateo is used here twice to call the Gentile to Torah observance, meaning Hakham Shaul demands the acceptance of the Halakhah 613(mitzvot) as taught and expounded upon by the Hakhamim.
67ματαιότης –mataiotes mental futility or vanity. This means that the Gentile who rejects the Torah, 613Mitzvot and the teachings of the Hakhamim are aimless conducting lifestyles of futility. This futility has captured their minds holding them ransom.
68Hakham Shaul now apprises us of the opposing mental disposition. Not only is it a mental disposition, it is the direct opposition to the Torah, the 613Mitzvot and the Hakhamim.
69ἀπαλλοτριόω –apallotriou has the sense of being “hostile.”
70Morally bereft of all sensible mores. The depth of this statement is only understood from a Hebraic mindset. To be ַרת ָּכ –karat, “cut off” means completely estranged from G-d’s presence and protection. Those who were “cut off” while traveling through the wilderness were subjected to every evil influence, without G-d’s protection or chesed/grace. Therefore, this is a crime of excommunication by Divine Decree. Here we can see the gravity of moral purposelessness. There are those people who believe that the idle mind of secular entertainment is harmless. However, this idle purposelessness is “opposition” to the Torah, which presents the “goal of Messiah” before us a s standard of life. Life in Messiah has the purpose of recapturing the mission of Adam HaRishon. Adam HaRishon shows the ability to capture the essence of each creature on the earth. Nevertheless, the goal was to apprehend the essence of G-d Himself. Herein, Hakham Shaul in this letter to the Ephesian Congregation sets this goal before them in the pattern of the ten men 3(Dinim –Judges and 7Paqidim) of the congregation. Why did Adam HaRishon and his spouse Chava cover themselves with a fig leaf? Was this an attempt to “hide” from the Omni Presence of G-d? Their new “awareness” was the sentience of the state of being ַרת ָּכ –karat, “cut off.” Therefore, they saw that they were without G-d’s protection in the Garden. Covering themselves with a fig leaf has many So’od connotations. The most simplistic explanation is that they wanted to camouflage themselves primarily from G-d but the other animals of the earth that would now pursue them as a food source. The human mind/soul is preprogramed with the capacity to perceive G-d. When we deviate from the Torah and the teachings of the Hakhamim, this is impossible.
71This is an unyielding mind devoted to opposing G-d and G-dly truth/practice. Its dealings are strict, harsh cruel and merciless. Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., &Bauer, W. .)2000(A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature.
72This is the result of being “cut off” from G-d. The language uses terms of sexual impropriety as an allegorical way of telling us that the

 69 alienated having a mental disposition full of darkness (cut off) from the life of God their ignorance is due to an unyielding obstinacy of mind.

For they, being desensitized, have given themselves up to apostasy,72 to every kind of impurity.73person or persons are bereft of G-d or any ethical mores. Theological dictionary of the New Testament. 1964-c1976. Vols. 5-9 edited by Gerhard Friedrich. Vol. 10 compiled by Ronald Pitkin. (G. Kittel, G. W. Bromiley & G. Friedrich, Ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerd mans. 1:490 73 In much of the Nazarean Codicil, demonic possession is associated with ritual impurity. While, Hakham Tsefet (Peter the wise) learned at Caesarea not to call Gentiles unclean, those who vehemently oppose the Torah are in some way subjected to unclean Shedim. This is not to say that all Gentiles are “unclean,” G-d forbid. Rather it is noteworthy to mention that direct opposition against the Torah, as a way of life is the mission of two-thirds of the shedim / fallen angels. Therefore, the darkened mind refers to those Gentiles who are either simply ignorant of the Torah as a way of life, and, those who are vehemently opposed to it because of their “unyielding obstinacy of mind.” Hakham Shaul’s view of the Gentile in Ephesians is the same as his view in his Letter to the Romans 1:18-32. Here Hakham Shaul takes the position that the lack of ability to comprehend G-d is a willful opposition against the Torah/G-d.

74 Leenhardt, Franz J. The Epistle to the Romans: A Brilliant Commentary on St. Paul’s Letter to the Church at Rome. The World Publishing Company, 1961. pp. 22-24
75 Kittel, Gerhard, Geoffrey William Bromiley, and Gerhard Friedrich. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1964. G. Schrenk TDNT 2:96

76 Shedd, William G. T. Commentary on Romans. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 1999. p.23
77 Cranfield, C. E. B. (2004). A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans. London; New York: T&T Clark International. p. 117

78Neusner, J., Neusner, J., Avery-Peck, A. J., Green, W. S., & Museum of Jewish Heritage (New York, N. Y. (2000). The encyclopedia of Judaism. “Published in collaboration with the Museum of Jewish Heritage, New York.” (2:596). Brill
79 Professing to have Hokhmah
80 To be recalcitrant

81 φθαρτός – phthartos is used of that which is corruptible and perishing.
82 Cf. Targum Pseudo Yonatan Shemot (Ex) 1:15: 32:4
83 Cf. Ex 7:11; 32.4
84 McNamara, M. 1966. The New Testament and the Palestinian Targums to the Pentateuch. AnBib 27a. Rome. 83-85
85 Explicit mention has already been made of these two in Pseudo-Jonathan at Exodus 1:15, in an inserted haggadah on Pharaohs dream on the birth of a lamb (Aramaic talya; “lamb, kid” or “young boy”), interpreted by Jannes and Jambres chief magicians of Egypt as referring to the birth of a son among the Israelites, one destined to destroy Egypt. McNamara, Martin. Targum and Testament Revisited: Aramaic Paraphrases of the Hebrew Bible: A Light on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Mich: William B. Eerdmans Pub, 2010. p. 236

86 Roth, Cecil. Encyclopedia Judaica [or Encyclopedia Judaica] (16 Volumes). Keter Publishing House, n.d. Vol 11. p. 78

87 Ibid Vol 7. pp. 700-1
88 G-d’s wrath is often pictured and spoken of in terms of “G-d’s rage” or “anger.” There is an amazing difference in the nature of G-d as described in this passage. G-d’s chief desire is to show His goodness to His creatures and for His creatures to feel His love. This is the true reason for the existence of the universe, cosmos. The “revelation” (apocalypse) of G-d’s wrath against one of His creatures shows the magnitude of their crimes. Herein the creature has failed to understand the gift of the Yetser HaRa. The Yetser HaRa is given as a means of achieving the highest goals of our humanity, and not just to rebel against its creator. The topic of “G-d’s Wrath against the wicked” startshere in Romans 1:18 and continues until 3:31.
89 ἀσέβεια – asebeia is generally translated as “ungodly.” However, the root is stronger in intending that those being mentioned are the “wicked” Heb. Rashim (pl.). The rasha (sing.) is one who intentionally does evil against his knowledge of that which is good. This makes the rasha accountable for his actions and therefore liable for punishment.
90 The English word “suppress” is from the Latin “sub” (down) premere (to press) supprimere – suppress. This word cannot convey the depth of meaning expressed by Hakham Shaul. The intentional withholding of truth is a most heinous crime. These men withhold the truth knowing the consequences of their actions and those who are affected by these subversive actions.
91 Intimate knowledge here means that “these men” who suppress the truth (i.e. the Torah – Written and Oral) know G-d as far as He is “knowable.” However, even what they know they have subverted and suppressed.
92 G-d revealed His true nature and plan to them. Yet, they withhold the truth (i.e. the Torah – Written and Oral) from those who are subordinate to them.

 

UNJUST MEN WHO INTENTIONALLY SUPPRESS THE TRUTH

 

COMMENTARY TO HAKHAM TSEFET’S SCHOOL OF PESHAT

UNJUST MEN WHO INTENTIONALLY SUPPRESS THE TRUTH

 

SCHOOL OF HAKHAM SHAUL’S TOSEFTA LUQAS (LK) Mishnah א:א

“Everyone who sends his wife away (without a bill of divorce Heb. get) and marries another commits adultery, and the one who marries a woman sent away (without a bill of divorce Heb. get) from her husband commits adultery.
We have borrowed the above phrase from the Remes of Romans for illustrating the continuity throughout the pericopes of the Nazarean Codicil.

Let us understand that the combined versions of the Peshat and Tosefta tell the truth of what Yeshua was trying to say. Furthermore, we must understand that the Greek texts from which these verses are derived have gaping lacunas. We have been faithful to translate the verses in the way that the MUST be read. The wife who is “sent away without a bill of divorce” is not divorced!!!The text of 1 Luqas (Luke) would appear to be a contradiction to the Torah. This can NEVER be. Furthermore, it is G-d Himself who initiated the idea of “divorce.”110 Moshe Rabbenu is only the Sh’liach of G-d expressing the Divine will. Therefore, we must learn to discern the difference between Middat HaDin (G-d’s justice) Middat HaRachamim (G-d’s Mercy). How could we possibly believe that G-d would torture two souls that were incompatible for whatever reason? Such thoughts show the absurdity of a demented mind!The connection to the Torah Seder is obvious when we understand and translate the Nazarean Codicil aright. Only the legitimate souls are counted. If a woman is “sent” from her husband without a divorce, his offspring can be considered questionable. Again, the questionable are not counted as a part of Yisrael.

Likewise, the connection to the Remes of Romans is built upon the same principle. The demented souls seek to establish halakhah without a Bet Din. Such men are men who hold the truth in injustice. Their injustice is subversion of truth, justice and mercy. However, divorce is not to be taken lightly and herein is the where the Bet Din comes in. The Bet Din will do everything possible to reconcile and salvage a marriage. But, when this is not possible a bill of divorce is the best answer.

It is from the union of Adam and Chavah (Eve) that Hakham Shaul draws his Remes of Romans. The injustice of  hardhearted Shammaites forbade divorce tormenting the “little ones” and subverting the will of G-d (truth). It is therefore, inferred by the text that because a bill of divorce (Heb. get) was not given men would send their wives away illegally. Furthermore, we can readily determine that “whatever G-d has joined” will bear suitable, honorable fruit spiritually and physically.

COMMENTARY TO HAKHAM SHAUL’S SCHOOL OF REMES

G-D’S WRATH

How are we to understand G-d’s wrath as described by Hakham Shaul? Description of G-d’s wrath can only be understood in allegorical (Remes), parabolic (Midrash) or So’odic (symbolic) terms. The obvious answer to this problem is that G-d is not subject to human emotion and therefore does not have any association with anger retribution or vengeance. Therefore, we understand the pericope to be in terms of allegory.

The Sages of the first century, including Yeshua and his subsequent talmidim viewed the cosmos as an organismic whole. However, they often spoke in terms of interdependent absolutes. The subdivisions Middat HaDin (G-d’s justice) Middat HaRachamim (G-d’s Mercy) Torah and Yisrael are an organismic whole. Though the concept Middat HaRachamim (G-d’s Mercy) does not contain G-d’s “name,” it is clearly understood to mean “G-d’s love.” The two categories Middat HaDin and Middat HaRachamim are two aspects of G-d justice.111 G-d’s justice can also be understood in terms of Gemilut Hasidim (G-d’s works of loving-kindness). The creation of the cosmos is a balanced measure (middah) of both Din (justice) and Rachamim (mercy). This is because G-d chastises those that He loves.112 However, Hakham Shaul is not speaking in terms of chastisement or Gemilut Hasidim (G-d’s deeds of loving-kindness). He is speaking of Middat HaDin (G-d’s justice) and Middat HaRachamim (G-d’s Mercy). Judgment He pours out on those who subvert the truth and Middat HaRachamim (G-d’s Mercy) is for those He loves.

We can also look to the Shema for the answer. We are apprised of the benefits for being faithful to G-d in the verses D’barim (Deut.) 11:13-15. In D’barim (Deut.) 11:16 – 17 we are shown the results of turning to false gods.113 “Suppression of the truth” must some way be associated with idolatry and foreign deities. Wrath ὀργή – 114 orge is also associated with a “hardened heart,” “willful disobedience,” “stubbornness” and “lack of repentance.” As Middat HaDin (G-d’s justice), ὀργή – orge is for the sake of turning the “sinner” to teshubah (repentance). Nonetheless, Hakham Shaul shows that G-d’s “Middat HaDin” (justice), is revealed in through G-d’s Mesorah.115 “G-d’s Mesorah” must be interpreted as the “Mesorah of Elohim” demanding strict justice.

The claim that the “G-d of the Torah” is only of justice, stands in contrast to the Nazarean Codicil “G-d of love” represents a gross distortion of the truth. Every objective biblical scholar, Christian and Jewish alike, understands that the Torah conceived of G-d in terms of both love and justice, just as this same G-d of the Nazarean Codicil manifests Himself in justice as well as love.116 Herein does the great heresy deserve G-d’s wrath. Those who hold that the G-d of the Torah must be appeased through Messiah blatantly subvert the truth of G-d’s Mesorah.

FOR FROM THE CREATION OF THE WORLD

G-d has impressed His Divine nature into the earth. This impression, though not observable as a visible power perceived with the eye, manifests itself when the earth “produces fruit.” As we have seen, invested in the earth is the ability to bear fruit “after its own kind.”117 This power is an invisible stamp of G-d’s image on the earth. G-d made man after His own “image.” Therefore, we deduce from the expressions G-d said “let the earth bring forth,” “after its own kind” and the earth “brought forth” after its own kind” that the earth also bears the Divine Image. 118 The invisible impression of G-d on the earth is discernable to the invisible soul, which understands this impression as the image of G-d produced in the earth or specific power attributed to the telluric world. With the capacity to perceive the “knowable” (Da’at) ideas of G-d, Adam (man – humanity) has the power to see the invisible creation with his innermost being. Having the capacity to know the attributes of the Divine Majesty we are called to express them in the cosmos as an expression of His Sons (B’ne Elohim). The Dabar/Memra/Logos is the highest expression of G-d’s “ideas.” As the highest expression of G-d’s “ideas,” the Dabar/Memra/Logos is the “idea of ideas.” Even though the Dabar/Memra/Logos is the prototypical pattern for the B’ne Elohim, each Neshamah bears a unique expression of G-d. And each Neshamah bears some resemblance and characteristics of the Dabar/Memra/Logos. “Still, all created beings in the visible world, according to him (Philo), were preceded by the creation of ideas corresponding to them. Consequently, the created individual minds and souls in the world must have been preceded by the creation of the idea of mind and the idea of soul.”119 In summary to what Philo and Hakham Shaul are both saying G-d made a spiritual expression of Himself in the form of “souls” before He placed them in physical vessels. These vessels (bodies) equip and enable the B’ne Elohim to carry out the mitzvoth of G-d and they bear the mark of the Divine Majesty on the souls.

Footnotes:

101This statement is in no way a contention against divorce and the “Torah of Moshe.” The “get” (bill of divorce) was/is G-d’s idea not Moshe’s

102G-d’s wrath is often pictured and spoken of in terms of “G-d’s rage” or “anger.” There is an amazing difference in the nature of G-d as described in this passage. G-d’s chief desire is to show His goodness to His creatures and for His creatures to feel His love. This is the true reason for the existence of the universe, cosmos. The “revelation” (apocalypse) of G-d’s wrath against one of His creatures shows the magnitude of their crimes. Herein the creature has failed to understand the gift of the Yetser HaRa. The Yetser HaRa is given as a means of achieving the highest goals of our humanity, and not just to rebel against its creator. The topic of “G-d’s Wrath against the wicked” starts here in Romans 1:18and continues until .3:31
103ἀσέβεια –asebeia is generally translated as “ungodly.” However, the root is stronger in intending that those being mentioned are the “wicked” Heb. Rashim (pl.). The rasha (sing.) is one who intentionally does evil against his knowledge of that which is good. This makes the rasha accountable for his actions and therefore liable for punishment.
104The English word “suppress” is from the Latin “sub” (down) premere (to press) supprimere –suppress. This word cannot convey the depth of meaning expressed by Hakham Shaul. The intentional withholding of truth is a most heinous crime. These men withhold the truth knowing the consequences of their actions and those who are affected by these subversive actions.
105Intimate knowledge here means that “these men” who suppress the truth (i.e. the Torah –Written and Oral) know G-d as far as He is “knowable.” However, even what they know they have subverted and suppressed.

106 G-d revealed His true nature and plan to them. Yet, they withhold the truth (i.e. the Torah – Written and Oral) from those who are subordinate to them.

107 For it follows of necessity that the Creator must always care for that which He has created, just as parents do also care for their children. And he who has learnt this not more by hearing it than by his own understanding, and has impressed on his own soul these marvelous facts which are the subject of so much contention—namely, that God has a being and existence, and that He who so exists is really one, and that He has created the world, and that He has created it one as has been stated, having made it like to Himself in singleness; and that He exercises a continual care for that which He has created will live a happy and blessed life, stamped with the doctrines of piety and holiness. Philo, A., & Yonge, C. D. (1996, c1993). The works of Philo: Complete and unabridged. Peabody: Hendrickson. p. 24

108 Because Hakham Shaul is speaking on the deeper aspects of Remes, we can see that he is speaking of meditation on G-d and the aspects, which verge on So’od. Meditation and deep mental thought brings about a normal mysticism that reveals aspects of G-d’s character that can only be revealed through allegorical comparisons.
109 καθοράω – “to look down,” perceive etc. The best understanding we can derive from this sentence is that there are those who have transcended great heights and are able to see from “above” per se. To these souls, G-d is “clearly” seen, or intimately known. Hakham Shaul is not suggesting that the subversive men who suppress the truth (i.e. the Torah – Written and Oral) are capable of this mental level. He here shows that there are those who do have this capacity and will appropriately worship and honour G-d.

110 Cf. D’barim (Deut) 24. The text is plain enough. The bill of divorce (Heb. get) is issued and she is sent out of the house.

111 Kadushin, Max. Organic Thinking: A Study in Rabbinic Thought. New York: Bloch, 1976. p. 184

Mishle (Pro.) 3:12 For whom the LORD loves He reproves, Even as a father corrects the son in whom he delights.

113 Toledano, Rabbi Eliezer. Orot Sephardic Shabbat Siddur: A New Linear, Sephardic Siddur with English Translation. Orot, n.d. pp. 380-

Out of the 28 times ὀργή – orge is used it is used 10 times in Romans.
115 Cf. Rm. 1:1
116 Glustrom, Simon. The Language of Judaism. Jason Aronson, Incorporated, 2000. pp. 199-200

 

 

Meditation from the Psalms Psalms ‎9‎ 2:1-8

 

Meditation from the Psalms Psalms ‎9‎ 2:1-8
By: H.Em. Rabbi Dr. Hillel ben David

The Pesikta notes41 that the initial letters of the first four Hebrew words of our psalm form ,למשהby Moses, for this is the third of the eleven psalms which he composed.

Moses dedicated this psalm, the third in the series of eleven, to the tribe of Judah. Judah had been named by his mother, Leah, for she said,42 “This time let me gratefully thank HaShem”.43

It is both unreasonable and unwise to pass judgment on a work of art before it has been completed; even a masterpiece may look like a grotesque mass of strokes and colors, prior to its completion. Human history is G-d’s masterpiece. Physical creation was completed at the end of the sixth day, but the spiritual development of mankind will continue until this world ends, at the close of the sixth millennium. Thus it is both unfair and impossible to judge G-d’s equity before the denouement of human history, despite the fact that history appears to be a long series of tragic injustices.

On the seventh day of the first week of creation, on the Shabbat,44 Adam surveyed G-d’s completed work and he was stirred to sing of the marvelous perfection which his eyes beheld.

Similarly, when the panorama of human history is completed, the seventh millennium will be ushered in as the day of everlasting Shabbat. At that time all of Adam’s descendants will look back and admire G-d’s completed masterpiece.

This psalm speaks of man’s bewilderment as he observes the inequity which is apparent in this world. It also tells of the joy he will experience when the inequities are resolved.

Therefore, the Talmud45 prescribes this as the Song of the Day46 for the Shabbat, both in the song of the Levites in

41In Pesiḳta Rabbati number .46
42Beresheet (Genesis) 29:35
43See Midrash Shocher Tov and Radak to 91:1
44Shabbat is the English transliteration of the Hebrew word normally translated as ‘Sabbath’. 45Rosh Hashanah 31a
46Day is our verbal tally with the Torah portion: Day – ,יוםStrong’s number .03117

BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)‎ Aramaic: With the help of Heaven the Holy Temple and in the universal Shabbat liturgy.47

This psalm speaks of the significance of Shabbat, because of this, I would like to expound a bit on some interesting perspectives surrounding Shabbat. This psalm is also dedicated to the future world, which is described as שבתיום -שכולוYom SheKulo Shabbat, the day which is completely Shabbat, for ordinary weekdays will not exist in that totally sacred world.

48 When is the Shabbat?

The Shabbat is the anniversary of the seventh day of creation.

OK, but when is the Shabbat? The Shabbat can be found on most calendars by noting the seventh day of any week. Usually is the far right column on the calendar. Additionally, you can ask any religious Jew and he will know because his ancestors spent forty years in the desert, in the days of Moshe, collecting manna on every day except the Shabbat when there was no manna to collect.

Shabbat is the seventh day of the week.49 This is no accident. Shabbat connects the six days of the week. All of the other days revolve around it. It serves as the center for the three days before it and the three days after it. Even though the seventh appears to be the final element in a linear progression, it is actually the core around which everything else revolves. Shabbat is a taste of Shamayim, the next world, because on Shabbat you connect with your labors of the other six days. We do not go anywhere or do anything on Shabbat.50 This is a taste of what it means to be there,51 to be in Shamayim.52

When the Torah wishes to give a name to the first day of the week, it gives it a name that describes it’s relationship to Shabbat, “the first day of Shabbat”, “the second day of Shabbat”, etc. And so it goes for the other six days. The sixth day is called “Erev Shabbat”, the eve of the Sabbath. Thus Shabbat connects the six days of the week. The following chart illustrates how the days revolve around Shabbat.

When we are called “the nation that sanctifies the Seventh”, we can understand this to refer to the Jewish people sanctifying that which is at the core, the Shabbat. Shabbat (as well as other “time-sevens” such as the Sabbatical year of Shmita) are about resting and relying on HaShem. This hints to us that the core is about reliance on

47These opening remarks are excerpted, and edited, from: The ArtScroll Tanach Series, Tehillim, A new translation with a commentary anthologized from Talmudic, Midrashic, and rabbinic sources. Commentary by Rabbi Avrohom Chaim Feuer, Translation by Rabbi Avrohom Chaim Feuer in collaboration with Rabbi Nosson Scherman.
48In Beresheet (Genesis) ,2:2the Torah calls Shabbat The Seventh day.

49The Sages teach us that what Shabbat, Sabbath, is to time, so Eretz Israel, the land of Israel, is to space. The Shmita, or Sabbatical, year connects these two. Space and time come together in a Shmita year.
50In this world we still have a taste of the Olam HaBa through their honoring and guarding of Shabbat. We use our labor of the six days to connect to the Shabbat. They picture the six thousand years of labor followed by the Messianic age when all will be Shabbat. This seventh millennium is itself a prelude to the Olam HaBa. In this seventh millennium, we will still have going and doing. Never the less, in the messianic age we will be connecting with Shabbat through all of our actions.

51The climax of the act of marital intimacy brings with it a sharp sense of arrival, of being there. This is the sensation we get when we arrive in the next world, of which Shabbat is just a bare taste, as we shall soon see.
52Shamayim, heaven, is a euphemism for the next world because HaShem will dwell with us in that place, where now He dwells in shamayim.

The Shabbat begins Friday at sundown and ends at sundown on Saturday. The Shabbat is therefore NOT the same as Saturday, which begins and ends at midnight.

Tuesday 3rd day

Monday 2nd day

Sunday 1st day

Shabbat 7th day

Friday 6th day

Thursday 5th day

Wednesday 4th day

 

BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)‎ Aramaic: With the help of Heaven

HaShem, but that the other six, be they days of the week, the six years prior to Shmita, etc. are about a struggle that stays centered on the core. [Working the six days of the week with an eye toward Shabbat in a way that is holy and spiritual even though it is “ordinary”; working the fields in compliance with Torah, leaving the gleanings, the corners, etc. for six years with the central realization that HaShem is the ultimate Provider not only during the Shmita year, but all of the other years as well]. Zayin, the Hebrew letter with a gematria of seven (7), seems to speak to us about the tension and paradox between struggle and letting go, finding balance between our effort, active trust in HaShem, and our passive trust in HaShem to provide our needs.

The Sages teach us that there are five things that we should strive to accomplish on Shabbat:

Shabbat is the day of connection, as seven is always associated with connection. Consider that every physical object has seven parts. Six sides: front, back, top, bottom, left and right, and a seventh which is the center that connects the six disparate sides.

The Torah commands us to keep the Shabbat holy.53 How do we keep the Shabbat Holy?
If you look throughout the entire Bible you will never find the place where HaShem defines how we are to keep the

Shabbat holy.54 So, how do we keep the Shabbat holy?
Our Sages have told us that the way to keep Shabbat holy is to light two candles55 just before Shabbat begins, make

5657 58
Kiddush on a cup of wine after Shabbat starts, have a cup of havdalah wine just before the end of Shabbat, and

finally we are to kindle the Havdalah candle right after Shabbat ends. This is how we are to sanctify59 the Shabbat and set it apart from the six work days.

The following graphic illustrates these actions:

53 Shemot (Exodus) 20:8 Remember the Shabbat day, to keep it holy.
54 The answer to this question is found in the oral Torah.
55 The most common custom is to light at least two candles, corresponding to the two forms of the fourth commandment: to remember (zachor: Shemot (Exodus) 20:8) and to observe (shamor: Devarim (Deuteronomy) 5:12) the Shabbat day to keep it holy. There are other customs, for example one candle for each of our children.
56 The Friday night Kiddush is where we declare that the purpose of Shabbat is “to remember creation and to remember the Exodus.” Because while HaShem created the entire world, it was through the Exodus from Egypt that mankind came to appreciate HaShem as the guiding hand of history.
57 Wine is related to daat, knowledge. Both maintain excellence only in humble containers. Both get better with age. Wine, and associated products, is the only substance on earth that gets better with age. Wine, and the sod, the secret level of Torah, both have the same gematria, which is why the Sages teach that when “wine goes in the secret comes out”. We, therefore take wine, as Jews, when ever we want to elevate ourselves to a higher level.
58 Jews take wine at every time they are ascending from one level, in this world, to a higher level. We drink wine on occasions that mark distinction (circumcision), growth (marriage), elevation (Shabbat) and enlightenment (Purim, Passover). “Wine is a primary expression of sanctity, kedushah, since they ordain a blessing over wine, Kiddush, as the proper way to inaugurate each Shabbat and festiva l day.
59 Keep it holy.

Shabbat Activity

Each of these seven is used for

connection

Eat the best food of the week.

Food connects the soul to the body.

Engage in marital relations.

Marital intimacy connects two physical bodies.

Rest.

Rest allows us to connect with the six days of work.

Pray.

Prayer allows us to connect with HaShem.

Study Torah.

Torah study allows us to connect with a transcendent world

 

images (2) Shabbat Candles 26179_sterling_silver_kiddush_cup_with_hebrew_alphabet_and_swirls_view_1kiddish cup with wine jr020_havdalah_candle___holder

Since kindling a fire is forbidden on the Shabbat, we kindle the Shabbat candles before Shabbat begins. For the same reason, we kindle the havdalah candle after the end of the Shabbat. Between these two kindlings, we take Kiddush wine60 at the beginning of the Shabbat and again we take havdalah wine61 just before the end of the Shabbat.

The candles lit on Erev Shabbat62 are lit during the day, eighteen minutes prior to sundown. The havdalah candle is lit during the night, forty-two minutes after sundown. On the fourth day G-d created the sun, moon, and stars. The sun governs the day (Erev Shabbat candle); the moon governs the night (the havdalah candle). The fourth command (corresponding to the fourth day), of the ten commands, is to sanctify the seventh day which we do by lighting the Erev Shabbat candles and the havdalah candle.

The seventh millennium, when all will be Shabbat, is ushered in with the Erev Shabbat candles which are lit eighteen minutes prior to sundown, even as HaShem will have a period of time, known as the time of Jacob’s trouble, when HaShem will bring fire on His enemies, just before the beginning of the Shabbat millennium. In a corresponding manner, HaShem will destroy His enemies and renew the earth after the Shabbat millennium, even as we light the havdalah candle, forty-two minutes after sundown, after the Shabbat.

An interesting thought: On the Kiddush of the festivals, we say the following:

Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:2-3Speak to the Children of Israel, and tell them these are the Festivals that they shall keep holy. For six days, work may be performed, but on the seventh day, it is a complete rest day, a holy occasion; you shall not perform any work. It is a Shabbat to the Lord in all your dwelling places.

Why is Shabbat inserted into the middle of the Festivals?
The Vilna Gaon explains that on all the festivals certain types of food related activity are permitted, whereas on

Shabbat all melachot63 are forbidden. However on one Yom Tov no melacha is permitted –Yom Kippurim64 –

60The Maharal developed a numerical approach in his study of the entire Written and Oral Law. He noted that numbers contain special significance. A numerical connection between two Hebrew words is not simply a random connection; it illustrates a deep concep tual bond. In the Maharal’s system, multiples of ten do not change the character of the number; therefore we can relate to seventy as a large seven. But, before we understand the number seven, let’s talk about the number six. In the three-dimensional physical world, everything has six sides, as in the sides of a cube; the number six relates to the six sides of the physical existence in which we live. Seven, however, is the point at the center of the cube; it is the hidden place where everything in the physical world has its spiritual source. It is the point that represents unity and the inner essence of all existence. Now we can understand the Maharal’s statement that wine comes from the place of concealment. The numerical value of the word for wine (yayin – )ייןpoints us to the hidden, inner essence of Creation. It also illustrates our appointed task in the world: bringing the seven, the elusive ideal, into the six, the physical nature of existence. This is a reason why wine is present for almost every significant Jewish lifecycle event, as well at every Shabbat and festival. At these central moments, wine sits at the center of our table and reminds us all about our hidden, infinite potential.

61Drinking wine has other deep meanings as well. Why is it that we always start a spiritual holiday with Kiddush over wine? Well a Holiday such as Shabbat is a mix of physical and spiritual entities. The point of holidays is to lift our physical activities to the level of the spiritual. A persons spiritual level gets better with time (if he/she works on his/herself), however all physical things get worse with time. The only exception is wine. Wine is a physical entity which gets better with time thus symbolizing the mixture of the physical and spiritual.

62Friday afternoon just before Shabbat starts (erev Shabbat means the eve of the Sabbath). 63Creative labors, the labors of a king.

BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)‎ Aramaic: With the help of Heaven

which is also known as ָבתֹון ַש ַבת ַש –Shabbat Shabbaton, the same terminology that the Torah uses for a regular Shabbat. Thus the pasuk can be rendered:

On six days melacha is permitted –the first and last days of Pesach ,)2(one day of Shavuot ,)3(one day of Rosh HaShana ,)4(one day of Succoth ,)5(one day of Shemini Atzeret .)6(However the seventh is the holy of holiest, no melacha is permitted, not even cooking, this is Yom Kippurim!65

What ‘work’ is forbidden on the Shabbat?

Most Americans see the word “work” and think of it in the English sense of the word: physical labor and effort, or employment. Under this definition, turning on a light would be permitted, because it does not require effort, but a Hakham, a Rabbi, would not be permitted to lead Shabbat services, because leading services is his employment. Jewish law prohibits the former and permits the latter. Many Americans therefore conclude that Jewish law doesn’t make any sense.

The problem lies not in Jewish law, but in the definition that Americans are using. The Torah does not prohibit “work” in the 20th century English sense of the word. The Torah prohibits “melacha” ָכה( ָלא ְמ ,)which is usually translated as “work,” but does not mean precisely the same thing as the English word. Before you can begin to understand the Shabbat restrictions, you must understand the word “melacha”.

Melacha generally refers to the kind of work that is creative, or that exercises control or dominion over your environment. The word may be related to “Melech” (king; .)מלךAvodah (permitted labor) comes from the root eved -slave. The quintessential example of melacha is the work of creating the universe, which G-d ceased from on the seventh day. Note that G-d’s work did not require a great physical effort: he spoke, and it was done.

The word melacha is rarely used in scripture outside of the context of Shabbat and holiday restrictions. The only other repeated use of the word is in the discussion of the building of the sanctuary and its vessels in the wilderness, in Shemot (Exodus) Chapters ,31 .35-38Notably, the Shabbat restrictions are reiterated during this discussion,66 thus we can infer that the work of creating the sanctuary had to be stopped for Shabbat. From this, our Hakhamim, our Rabbis, concluded that the work prohibited on Shabbat is the same as the work of creating the sanctuary. They found 39categories of forbidden acts, all of which are types of work that were needed to build the sanctuary. These are the labors defined as melacha:67

Sowing, Plowing, Reaping, Binding sheaves, Threshing, Winnowing, Selecting, Grinding, Sifting, Kneading, Baking, Shearing wool, Washing wool, Beating wool, Dyeing wool, Spinning, Weaving, Making two loops, Weaving two threads, Separating two threads, Tying, Untying, Sewing two stitches, Tearing, Trapping, Slaughtering, Flaying, Salting meat, Curing hide, Scraping hide, Cutting hide up, Writing two letters, Erasing two letters, Building, Tearing a building down, Extinguishing a fire, Kindling a fire, Hitting with a hammer, Taking an object from the private domain to the public, or transporting an object in the public domain.

Abstaining from melacha on Shabbat is a loyalty test from The King. It is the yardstick of a covenant. That is why the penalty for intentionally breaking the Shabbat -is death!

Carrying the weight of water is burdensome. But, if you scuba dive and immerse yourself in the water, and then bearing the weight of the water becomes a pleasure. Even so, one immersed in Torah and Shabbat will never find

64The Day of Atonement.
65The weekly Shabbat and each of the festivals, in Vayikra chapter ,23are described as containing festival Shabbats. These festival Shabbats have the same actions and prohibitions as the weekly Shabbat. The only difference between the weekly Shabbat and the festival Shabbats is that we are allowed to cook on the festivals, if the fire is lit before the festival.
66Shemot (Exodus) .31:13
67First of all, the Mishkan itself is a micro-world. Each and every detail, along with the 39types of labor necessary for its construction, model the seven days of creation. As an aside, it now makes sense why the Torah forbids us to do those very same thirty-nine (forty less one) types of labor on Shabbat. Just as HaShem completed His activities of creation on the 7th day, so too we must stop our acts of labor on the 7th day. We are emulating the Creator!

BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)‎ Aramaic: With the help of Heaven

it’s commands to be burdensome. HaShem says that the Shabbat is a precious gift stored away in His treasury for the Jewish people.

A Taste of the Olam HaBa: Shabbat is the culmination, the end-point, of all of our labors. It is a taste of the next world.68 There is an idea that all spiritual realities have at least one tangible counterpart in the physical world so that we can experience them. Shabbat is one sixtieth of the pleasure of the Olam HaBa.69

“It is good to thank G-d” –you better believe it! As Adam and mankind have learned the hard way:

Because Adam blamed Chava for breaking the command not to eat of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil; and in the process, denied the good that HaShem had done for him, the decree of expulsion resulted. Expulsion from Gan Eden, the Garden of Eden, was the first ever exile of mankind, and the “root” of all exiles and oppressions to follow, especially for the Jewish people. Therefore showing HaShem gratitude is a crucial key to ending this exile.

This is why Shabbat is likened to one-sixtieth of the Olam HaBa,70 a time when we shall be able to fully appreciate HaShem’s gift of life to us. On Shabbat, by abstaining from certain “creative activities”, we are compelled to sit back and look at all that HaShem does to keep us going, and if we don’t do that, then we deny both the opportunity of Shabbat and HaShem’s good, just as Adam did.

Hence, the Sages are telling us that, as much as Shabbat is like the Olam HaBa (and it is), still, the experience is so minimal that it is as if it is not there at all? In other words, even if Shabbat is the most wonderful experience, still the Olam HaBa will become infinitely better. Shabbat is, therefore, a taste of the Olam HaBa.

It would be too difficult to relate to these abstract, spiritual things, if we could never have any direct experience of it. So, sleep is a sixtieth of the death experience; a dream is a sixtieth of prophecy. Shabbat is a sixtieth of the experience of the next world. We have these experiences in order that we should understand those things that HaShem has promised.

Why specifically a sixtieth? What is unique about the proportion of one in sixty? One who has sensitive ear will hear something very beautiful here. One in sixty is that proportion which is on the borderline of perception: in the laws of kashrut (permitted and forbidden foods) there is a general rule that forbidden mixtures of foods are in fact forbidden only if the admixture of the prohibited component comprises more than one part in sixty. If a drop of milk accidentally spills into a meat dish that dish would not be forbidden if less than one part in sixty were milk, the milk cannot be tasted in such dilution. The halachic borderline is set at that point where taste can be discerned. The beautiful hint here is that Shabbat is one sixtieth of the intensity of Olam HaBa, it is on the borderline of taste: if one lives Shabbat correctly, one tastes the next world. If not, one will not taste it at all.

Shabbat is a sign: Shabbat was given as a “sign71 of the covenant” to the Jews,72 the ones who accepted the covenant. Shabbat is a sign,73 which is, according to Exodus ,31symbolic of the eternal bond between HaShem and the Jewish people.

68Shabbat is described as “meeyn olam haba” -a small degree of the experience of the next world.
69Shabbat 57b
70The Coming World.
71The Hebrew word for sign, ot – ,אותgives us significant insight into HaShem’s plans. Ot – ,אותHas a vav between an alef and a tav. The vav )ו(is the Hebrew letter that is often used for the prefix ‘and’. It is the letter of connection. The alef )א(is the first letter of the Hebrew alefbet. The tav )ת(is the last letter of the Hebrew alefbet. Thus the Hebrew word ‘ot – ,’אותsign, carries the connotaion of something that connect the beginning and the end.

72At Mt. Sinai, the Torah says that not only Jews were there, but a large mixed multitude of other people. Both groups accepted the covenant. In the process, all those Gentiles became Jews. At Sinai, Jews and Gentiles became Jews, they all became converts. That is why the rules for converts today correspond exactly to the requirements to stand at the foot of Mt. Sinai, in the Days of Moses.
73A man always needs a sign of his bond with HaShem. Shabbat itself is such a sign, but on the weekdays, this sign is tefillin.

BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)‎ Aramaic: With the help of Heaven

The Shabbat was made for all men to enjoy, when they entered the Mosaic covenant. Gentiles, and Jews, had to enter the covenant before they could enjoy the Shabbat. The Shabbat was part of the marriage contract between HaShem and Israel and a token and sign of that covenant:

Shemot (Exodus) 31:12-17And HaShem spake unto Moses, saying, Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily my Shabbats ye shall keep: for it [is] a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that [ye] may know that I [am] HaShem that doth sanctify you. Ye shall keep the Shabbat therefore; for it [is] holy unto you: every one that defileth it shall surely be put to death: for whosoever doeth [any] work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people. Six days may work be done; but in the seventh [is] the Shabbat of rest, holy to HaShem: whosoever doeth [any] work in the Shabbat day, he shall surely be put to death.

for [in] six days HaShem made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.

This covenant, which lasts forever, is called, in Hebrew, ָלם עֹו ִרית ְב –an eternal covenant. Here we see Shabbat

identified as a brit olam, a covenant for all time, a term used with respect to circumcision in Genesis 17:7;74here Israel is told Shabbat is ot hee le’olam, a sign for all times, parallel to the ot brit of Genesis .17:11These are the only two commandments whose importance is emphasized by this sort of language.

The contract was not made with men before Moses. It was made with Israel in the days of Moses:

Devarim (Deuteronomy) 5:1-3And Moses called all Israel, and said unto them, Hear, O Israel, the statutes and judgments which I speak in your ears this day, that ye may learn them, and keep, and do them. HaShem our G-d made a covenant with us in Horeb. HaShem made not this covenant with our fathers, but with us, [even] us, who [are] all of us here alive this day.

The Shabbat only applied to the Jew, the ger tzaddik, and the ger toshav who was ready to convert.75 It did not apply to all people. Some may quote Hakham Shaul:

Colossians 2:16Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the Shabbat [days]: Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body [is] of Mashiach.

Hakham Shaul is not abrogating the Torah! He is not changing what HaShem did with the Israelites. He does not have the authority, or the desire, to change this. Therefore we must conclude that the ones keeping the Shabbat are either Jews or proselytes (ger toshav).76 Hakham Shaul may also have been referring to the festival Shabbats which the Gentiles may keep, except for Shemini Atzeret. Remember that the natural progression would have the Gentiles become ger toshav; the ger toshav would then convert and become a ger tzaddik.

Some may also claim that His Majesty King Yeshua changed this by saying:

Marqos (Mark) 2:27And he said unto them, The Shabbat was made for man, and not man for the Shabbat:
We must conclude that Mashiach’s audiences were Jews and that this was not meant to apply to those who were not

a part of the covenant. Again Yeshua had neither the authority, nor the desire, to change HaShem’s covenant.

There is an important concept here, which we learn from this world. I don’t enjoy the wages and perks of a another man’s wife, because I did not sign the marriage contract and because I did not do the work. The Shabbat was a

74Thus we see that circumcision and Shabbat are connected.
75A Ger toshav (lit. resident) is a Gentile who keeps the seven laws of Noah. A ger tzaddik is the name for a Gentile after he has entered the covenant and becomes a Jew.
76II Luqas (Acts) chapter 15strongly implies this.

Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the Shabbat, to observe the Shabbat throughout their generations, [for] a perpetual covenant. It [is] a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever:

BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)‎ Aramaic: With the help of Heaven

“sign” for those who “signed” the covenant, and kept its provision. It was the reward, like marital intimacy, for those folks alone, much as a husband will not tolerate an interloper. All covenants, or contracts, are like this: Those who sign, and keep the provisions, enjoy the rewards. Those who don’t sign, or don’t keep the provisions, do not share in the reward.

While Jews and ger toshav will be part of the Olam HaBa, they both have different roles and functions. This does not have anything to do with enjoying the Shabbat.

So, far from being a discouragement, the Shabbat is meant to entice the Gentile to “sign” the covenant (immerse in the mikveh, brit Milah,77 and agree, before a Bet Din, to keep the covenant). It is a reward for the man who loves HaShem and is willing to do what it takes. It is NOT for any Tom, Dick, or Harry who decides he wants it. That is outright adultery,78 and theft, and it negates the covenant.

Since circumcision and Shabbat represent special signs between HaShem and Israel, they do not apply to other nations. “A gentile who observed Shabbat deserves death”,79 and a non-Jew whose foreskin is removed, is still considered halachically uncircumcised: “All gentiles are uncircumcised”.80

Sanhedrin 58b Resh Lakish also said: A heathen who keeps a day of rest, deserves death, for it is written, And a day and a night they shall not rest,81 and a master has said: Their prohibition is their death sentence.82 Rabina said: Even if he rested on a Monday. Now why is this not included in the seven Noachian laws? — Only negative injunctions are enumerated, not positive ones.83

The Maharsha explains84 that the Shabbat is, metaphorically, a bride.85 Indeed, the Talmud refers86 to the Shabbat as a bride and the Shabbat is greeted in the same way that a bride is greeted This imagery was immortalized by

Rabbi Shlomo Alkabetz87 in his classical liturgical song, Lecha Dodi, which is sung just before the reception of the

Shabbat. Rabbi Avraham Sperling writes,88 based on this allegorical comparison, that Shabbat is the female companion to the Israelite nation. The Jewish Nation is married to Shabbat. Therefore, when a non-Jew follows the rules of Shabbat, it is as if he is committing adultery with the married bride Shabbat, and so he is liable for the death penalty. However, before the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai, Shabbat did not yet have any marital connection to the Jewish Nation, and therefore, the patriarchs of the Jewish Nation, even if they had the halachic status of Noachides, were allowed to observe the laws of Shabbat in its entirety.

77 Circumcision
78 This is why the Tanach often equates idolatry with adultery.
79 Sanhedrin 58b
80 Yermiyahu (Jeremiah) 9:25
81 Beresheet (Genesis) 8:22. ‘They’ is here made to apply to men, and ‘shall not’ is taken to mean ‘may not’.
82 Eisenstein, J. E., V. p. 623, suggests that this may have been directed against the Christian Jews, who disregarded the Mosaic law yet observed the Sabbath, and quotes Maimonides who advances the following reason: ‘The principle is, one is not permitted to make innovations in religion or to create new commandments. He has the privilege to become a true proselyte by accepting the whole law.’ (Yad. Melakim, X, 9.) He also points out that ‘Deserves death’ expresses strong indignation, and is not to be taken literally; [cf. the recurring phrase. ‘He who transgresses the words of the Sages deserves death.’ Ber. 6b.]
83 The seven Noachide laws deal with things which a heathen must abstain from doing. But when we say that a heathen must not observe a day of rest, we bid him to do a positive action, viz., work.
84 To Sanhedrin 58b
85 The Gemara states that there are twenty-four instances in Scripture where the Priests are referred to as Levites. Reb Tzadok HaKohen from Lublin writes that the concept of Shabbat is mentioned twelve times in the Torah, and we know that everything on Shabbat is double, so essentially Shabbat is represented by the number twenty-four. This idea is also reflected in the fact that a bride adorns herself with twenty- four ornaments, and the Shabbat is referred to as the bride. In a similar vein we can suggest that the Zohar states that a Torah scholar is akin to Shabbat, and the Priests and Levites were the quintessential Torah scholars amongst the Jewish People, so it is appropriat e that the Priests are referred to as Levites twenty-four times in Scripture.
86 Bava Kama 32a
87 A 16th century poet and Kabbalist from Tzfat.
88 Ta’amei HaMinhagim, pg. 502 (Eshkol Ed.)

BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya)‎ Aramaic: With the help of Heaven

Maimonides writes89 that the prohibition of a gentile observing Shabbat is a part of the general prohibition for gentiles not to innovate novel laws.90 Rabbi David Ibn Zimra91 explains92 that according to Maimonides gentiles are not allowed to keep the Sabbath as if they were commanded to do so, rather they are only allowed to observe it as means of acquiring merits, but not as a means of fulfilling a commandment because they have no such commandment. In light of this, Rabbi Moshe Sofer93 explains the words of an enigmatic Talmudic passage,94 which states that if a non-Jew rests on Shabbat, he has fulfilled the commandment of resting. A non-Jew is only not allowed to rest when doing so as part of a “religious service”, however, a non-Jew can rest and get the reward for fulfilling the commandment of Shabbat in doing so. This is true if the gentile personally accepts upon himself not to worship idols. Keeping Shabbat and abstaining from idols are really the same because Shabbat is testimony95 to the fact that HaShem created the world, while idolatry denies this truism. Therefore, a gentile who specially avowed not to worship idols (ger toshav) is also obligated to keep Shabbat and thereby has no prohibition of resting.96 Perhaps the patriarchs of the Jewish nation before the Sinaitic Revelation had the status of such Noachides, and were thus able to observe properly the Shabbat.

Finally, it is worth noting that the beginning of our psalm, the first eight pesukim, speaks of the primary duties of Aaron and his sons, the Priests, along with the Levites, in the Temple – on the Shabbat. This concords well with the Torah’s mention of HaShem’s selection of the priests and the Levites to minister before Him. Their secondary duty was to teach the Bne Israel the Torah. Through this teaching, the Priests and the Levites were to enable the Bne Israel to distance themselves from idolatry, which is the theme of our Ashlamata.

Now since Moses was in charge of conveying HaShem’s word to the Priests and the Levites, it is fitting that he should author our psalm for the Shabbat day.

 

 

Messianic and Christian Errors: Washing of Hands.

pharisees

 

Replacement Theology

One of the  tragic mistakes over the last 2000 years has been the reinterpretation of the meaning of the Jewish Bible. The Bible was never written to non-Jews, those outside the culture and the language and the Torah of Hashem, the God of Israel.

Today Messianic’s, along with their Christian brothers, reinterpret the Bible and tell  the Jewish people what our scriptures mean.  What arrogance! For someone to take something that does not belong to them and make it their own and then tell the ones who wrote it’s what their God meant . (Messiah and Oral Law)

This is replacement theology.

Washing hands

 

Tradition Of the Elders

 

Today, I would like to introduce a study to show you just how far off the mark, the Messianic Jews and Christians are in their understanding of the Nazarene Talmud. (New Testament)

 NAZAREAN TALMUD SIDRA OF SHMOT (EX.) 16:28 -28:27

“A’AD ANAH MEAN’TEM” “HOW LONG DO YOU REFUSE” BY: H. EM RABBI DR. ADON ELIYAHU BEN ABRAHAM & H. EM. HAKHAM DR. YOSEF BEN HAGGAI

 

And as he was speaking, a one of the P’rushim (Pharisees) asked him to have a meal with him, and he went in and reclined at the table. And the P’rushim (Pharisees), when he saw it, was astonished that he did not first wash before the meal. But the Master said to him, “Now you Shammaite P’rushim (Pharisees) cleanse the outside of the cup and of the dish, but your inside is full of greediness and wickedness. Fools! Did not the one who made the outside make the inside also? But first give as charitable giving the things that are within your power, and then wash hands behold, everything is clean for you.

“But woe to you, P’rushim (Pharisees), because you pay a tenth of mint and cumin and every garden herb, and neglect justice and love for God!  But is it necessary to do these things without neglecting those things also.

Woe to you, P’rushim (Pharisees), because you love the best seat in the synagogues and the greetings in the marketplaces! Woe to you, because you are like unmarked graves, and the people who walk over them do not know!

And one of the experts in halakhah answered and said to him, “Teacher, when you say these things, you insult us also!” So he said, “Woe to you also, experts in halakhah, because you load people with burdens hard to bear, and you yourselves do not touch the burdens with one of your fingers! Woe to you, because you build the tombs of the prophets, and your fathers killed them! As a result, you are witnesses, and you approve of the deeds of your fathers, because they killed them and you build their tombs! For this reason also the wisdom of God said, ‘I will send to them Neb’i’im (prophets) and Sheliachim (apostles), and some of them they will kill and persecute,’ so that the blood of all the prophets that has been shed from the foundation of the world may be required of this generation, from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zechariah, who perished between the altar and the temple building. Yes, I tell you, it will be required of this generation! Woe to you, legal experts, because you have taken away the key to knowledge! You did not enter yourselves, and you hindered those who were entering!”

And when he departed from there, the Soferim (scribes) and the P’rushim (Pharisees) began to be terribly hostile, and to question him closely about many things, plotting to catch him with reference to something he might say.

SCHOOL OF HAKHAM TSEFET PESHAT MORDECHAI (MK) 7:1-13 Mishnah א:א

And the P’rushim (Pharisees) and some of the Soferim (scribes) who had come from Yerushalayim gathered to him. And they saw that some of his talmidim were eating their bread with unclean, that is, unwashed hands and they found fault. (For the P’rushim (Pharisees) and all the Jews do not eat unless they wash their hands (ritually), thus holding fast to the traditions of the Zechanim. And when they come from the marketplace, they do not eat unless they wash (their hands). And there are many other traditions which they have received and hold fast to for example, the washing of cups and pitchers and copper kettles and dining couches.) And the P’rushim (Pharisees) and the Soferim (scribes) asked him, “Why do your talmidim not live according to the tradition of the Zechanim, but eat their bread with unclean hands?” So he said to them, “Yesha’yahu (Isaiah) prophesied correctly about you painted ones (hypocrites), as it is written, “Then the LORD said, “Because this people draw near with their words And honor Me with their lip service, But they remove their hearts far from Me, And their reverence for Me consists of traditions learned by rote, (Isa. )29:13

And he said to them, “You splendidly ignore the commandment of God so that you can keep your (Shammaite) tradition. For Moshe Rabbenu said, “Honor your father and your mother,” and, “The one who speaks evil of father or mother must certainly die. But you say, If a man says to his father or to his mother, “Whatever benefit you would have received from me is korban” (that is, a gift to God), you no longer permit him to do anything for his father or his mother, thus making void the Torah of God by your (Shammite) tradition that you have handed down, and you do many similar things such as this.”

 SCHOOL OF HAKHAM SHAUL REMES

2LUQAS (ACTS) 15:612- Mishnah א:א

15:6 – 9 ¶Both the Sheliachim and the Zechanim (the talmidim of the Master) assembleda to deliberate concerning this matter.b And after there was much debate, Hakham Tsefet stood up and said to them, “Anashim (Men of nobility) and brothers, you know that a good while agoc how God chose among you through my mouth that the Gentiles should hear the message of the Mesorah and become faithfully obedientd (to the Torah/Mesorah of the Master).e And God, who knows the heart, testified to them by giving them the Nefesh Yehudi (Jewish Soul of Holiness), just as he also did to us. And He made no distinction between us and them,f cleansing their heartsg through faithful obedience.”

15:10 – 12Hakham Tsefet continued saying “So now why are you putting God to the testh by placing on the neck of the talmidim (not on the Gentiles) a yoke that neither our fathers nor we have strength to bear? But we who have become faithfully obedient will have admittance into the Olam HaBa through the chesed (mercy) of the Master Yeshua, and they will find admittance into the Olam HaBa in the same way as we did,” And the whole congregation became silent and listened to BarNechamah and Hakham Shaul describing the marvel of the Gentiles taking up (putting to practice) the signs of God.

Commentary to Hakham Tsefet’s School of Peshat

Again, we do not need great help realizing that the present Marqan pericope of Hakham Tsefet’s Peshat is anchored firmly in the present Torah Seder.

Now we see that Mark is related to the Torah Seder read this Shabbat: Ex 16:28 – 18:27 and Mark 7:1-13. This passage, as we have described before is one that has been not only misinterpreted drastically but also it contains Christian scribal distortions in order to support an un-Scriptural Christian Dogma – i.e that the Master rejected the Jewish Oral Law and Rabbinic authority.

Sabink introduces this pericope of Mark with the following words:

“In Jewish tradition, there are clear boundaries between the sacred and the profane, between what is to be consecrated to God and what is to be regarded as secular or “common.” The Jewish people see themselves as consecrated to God in accordance with God’s blessings of them in Exodus 19:6 – “You will be to Me a kingdom of priests, a holy nations.” The Ten Commandments of the covenant, as well as the subsidiary Laws designed to support and protect them, are considered a gift to be cherished.

The laws concerning food are part of this larger context. Eating Kosher food and using Kosher dishes are an acknowledgement that all life, as well as the nourishing of it, is sacred to the Lord. The whole discussion in this chapter should be regarded in that context and not as an argument over trivial rules. The Jewish custom of washing their hands before eating, and the vessels before using them, was originally more than good hygiene. They were also acts of ritual purification, signalling Jewish desire to consecrate this most basic of human activities.”

With this thought in mind, let us explore the import of this pericope of Mark.

We need to start this discussion by pointing to the Babylonian Talmud and Tractate Berakhot 51b. In this passage of the Babylonian Talmud, there is a record of one of the important disputes between the School of Hillel and the School of Shammai. One of these disputes concerns the washing of hands. R. Hillel rules that one says the blessing over the wine and then washes hands, whereas, Shammai rules that one washes hands first and then blesses the wine. R. Shammai would say that R. Hillel was eating with defiled hands even when R. Hillel washed his hands before eating, because R. Hillel would have washed after the blessing of the wine.

In other words, because R. Hillel did not observe the order that Shammai had set, even though R. Hillel washed hands before eating, R. Shamai would say that such a washing of hands is invalid and considered of no effect because it was done after the blessing of the wine. Logically then, according to R. Shammai, R. Hillel would be “not walking according to the tradition of the elders, but ate bread with unwashed hands” (Mark 7:5).

likewise, in the eyes of R. Shammai and his disciples, the Master and his disciples ate with unclean hands because they washed hands after the blessing of the cup.

For further information regarding this argument, please see the following audio lectures by Mr. Stephen Allen:

 

  • 7:1 – And the P’rushim (Pharisees) and some of the Soferim (scribes) who had come from Yerushalayim gathered to him. – Now this verse is alerting that these P’rushim (Pharisees) and Soferim (Scribes Proto-Rabbis) had come to synagogue with Yeshua from Yerushalayim. Since there were two schools of Law within the Pharisaic movement (House of Hillel and House of Shammai), we need to ask whether these P’rushim (Pharisees) and Soferim (Scribes Proto-Rabbis) that came together from Yerushalayim were of the School of R. Hillel or of the School of R. Shammai. As a rule, every time we read in the Nazarean Codicil of any P’rushim (Pharisees) coming from Yerushalayim we know that they came from the House of R. Shammai. We also find as a rule, that when P’rushim (Pharisees) come from Yerushalayim they always hold to the positions and teachings of the School of R. Shammai.
  1. That these P’rushim (Pharisees) and Soferim (Scribes Proto-Rabbis) came from Yerushalayim to observe what was the position of the Master regarding this Halakha means that they considered the Master to have at least Halakhic authority even when his position would not be in agreement with theirs. They considered him important enough to synagogue with him and the Master’s talmidim!7:2 – And they saw that some of his talmidim were eating their bread with unclean, that is, unwashed hands, and found fault. – Marcusl comments on this verse:“loaves of bread (Greek: ἄρτους – ARTOUS – G740) , lit. “the breads.” This plural is a bit awkward in the context; the singular ARTON would be more natural.”Again, here we have an indication that it was NOT “normal leavened bread” that they were eating, but “unleavened MATSOT.” Thus, the uncomfortable awkward Greek plural. Mordechai is perhaps writing in Greek but his mother tongue is Hebrew and he twists the Greek grammar and syntax in order to conform to his mother tongue. That is why it is so relatively easy to retranslate Mark back to Hebrew as Pastor Lindsey found out!

Note that the text says, “they (the P’rushim [Pharisees] from the School of Shammai and the Scribes accompanying them) found fault.” The text does not say that they found the Master or his talmidim (disciples) to be heretics or apostates. They simply found the Master and his Talmidim at fault in the same way that they found the School of R. Hillel at fault as well, since both R. Hillel and the Master of Nazareth were of the same opinion!

7:3 – (For the P’rushim (Pharisees) and all the Jews do not eat unless they wash their hands (ritually), thus holding fast to the traditions of the Zechanim. “All the Jews” does not mean “All of the Jewish people” but rather “the majority of the Jewish people.” The Greek word used here for “fist” is υ – PYGMI (G 4435) and from where we get the English word “pugilist.” This could also be translated as “with a cupped hand” which is the manner in which Orthodox Jews have washed hands since time immemorial. But it also admits the possibility that the washing of the hands is from the “wrist” or “fist” to the nails (cf. Mishnah Yadayim 2: ). Both are excellent possibilities with much and equal merit.

Interestingly, Christians with their misinterpretation and mistranslation of this pericope of Mark, seem to side with the Sadducees and their modern incarnation as Karaites, who hold that only the regulations written in Scripture, not those “from tradition of the Fathers” need to be observed. In fact much of Christianity seems to be “Sadducaism Redivivus.” But as Hansonn points out: “Scripture without an interpretative tradition is dumb and useless.” (See also above how the knowledge about what the Tsitsit are and how they are tied depends solely on TRADITION.)

7:4 – And when they come from the marketplace, they do not eat unless they wash (their hands). We can also translate the verse as follows… And (fruit and vegetable goods) coming from the market, if they do not immerse, they do not eat. And there are many other things which they received to observe: dippings of cups, and of utensils, and of copper vessels. This is very correct and for more information see Mishnah Tractate Kelim. By the way, this is from the Bible and not from Tradition (see: Lev. 11:32; 15:12).

Passages 5-13 were severely criticised by the Rabbis, who agree with the Master (see Mishnah Qidd. 31b – “Honour Father and Mother” means that he must give them food and drink, clothes and cover them, lead them in and out. See also Philo Decalogue 113-18). This therefore seems to be also an area where the Schools of R. Hillel and R. Shammai may have differed, albeit there is no evidence for this. Again, Marcuso notes:

“We have no direct evidence for judging the attitude of the Pharisees to vows, but their successors, the Rabbis, agreed with Josephus and the Jesus of the Gospels: vows are not binding if made for an unworthy purpose, and avoidance of the necessary support of parents would fall into this category.” The sort of abuse here is forbidden in the third century by the Mishnah, which says that the imperative to honour parents overrules any vow (Mishnah Nedarim 9:1).”

Klausnerp is of the opinion Pharisaic stringency on vows was subsequently relaxed by the Rabbis as expressed in the Mishnah and Talmuds. Klausner’s proposition seems to be similar to mine (although I am more forceful in attributing stringency on vows to R. Shammai and leniency to R. Hillel and our Master. However, this is just pure academic guesstimate, as there is no record to prove this, except this and other passages of the Nazarean Codicil.

Marcus proposes another opinion with merit,q when he states that; “It is also possible, however, that a Pharisaic ruling on hand washing is conflated with a priestly one, since priests would have had a motive for insisting that vows to the Temple be honoured.” Interestingly in this pericope, Yeshua is not only arguing with P’rushim (Pharisees) from the school of R. Shammai but also with Soferim (Scribes) who may well have been also priests.

In summary, Sabin provides for us the final note, when she comments:

 

“In context, Isaiah is expressing God’s frustration that the people of Jerusalem do not trust that God will save them from the besieging enemies. God finds the root cause in the fact that the people honor Him with their lips, not with their hearts and minds. Their worship has become merely “routine observance of G-d’s commandments” and thereby transformed into human precepts. … But the point of Jesus criticism is clearly part of the larger theme of the chapter, Jesus is pointing out that human relationships (i.e. parents to children and vice versa) are what is truly sacred, and no religious formula can rationalize that sacredness away.”

Commentary to Hakham Shaul’s School of Remes
Introduction

We have now before us some of the most difficult passages in all the Nazarean Codicil. Therefore, we must read with great caution every word so that we are able to determine exactly what is being conveyed. Through context, contiguity and hermeneutic laws we will be able to determine that the great discussion being deliberated is the “Gentile predicament.”s It should be obvious that the great deliberation is over how the Jewish people are to relate to the Gentiles in Diaspora, without presenting an unnecessary threat of the practices of the commandments and received traditions. This is a very complex issue. However, through verbal archeology we are able to determine how to interpret this deliberation. Therefore, we will try to interpret the materials systematically and then try to draw a Remes and halakhic summation.

 

A Nazarean Bet Din

Both the Sheliachim and the Zechanim (the talmidim of the Master)…

Before we can determine what is being deliberated we need to know that the Bet Din is Nazarean. This means that the congregation of Judges/Hakhamim are all believers in Yeshua as Messiah i.e. Yeshua’s Talmidim. Therefore, all the congregants are Yeshua’s talmidim! Upon this point, we must be clear, because it is a vital point in our understanding of this Bet Din’s ruling. If there is any Gentile present, we are not apprised of their attendance. We will opine that there are not any Gentiles present. We are able to make this assessment because this is a Nazarean Jewish Bet Din. Therefore, the issue being discussed is “Adjudicated” by a Jewish Bet Din of Hakhamim. The determination of this Bet Din will establish precedent or follow the customst of earlier Bate Din.

Colossians 2:16-17 Therefore let no one who is a Gentile but the body of Messiah (the Jewish people) pass judgment on you in questions of food and drink, or with regard to a festival or a New Moon or a Sabbath. For these are a shadow (prophecies) of things yet to come.

Hakham Shaul makes this statement in the wake of II Luqas (Acts) chapter 15 making it clear that the Gentiles are subjected to the Jewish Bate Din. Therefore, we see from this passage that the only viable Court with regard to Jewish halakhah is an authentic Bet Din of Jewish Hakhamim.

Romans 13:1- 2 Let every gentile soul be subject to the governing authorities (of the Jewish Synagogue). For there is no legitimate authority except (that of the Jewish Bet Din) from God, and the authorities (of the Bet Din)

that exist are appointed by God. Therefore, whoever resists the authority (of the Bet Din) resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will bring judgment (of the heavens) upon themselves.

Therefore, all Gentiles who wish to have any part in the Jewish Commonwealth must uphold the rulings of the Jewish Bet Din. We state this as a matter of Halakhah.

Hakham Tsefet stood up and said to them, “Anashim (Men of nobility) and brothers, you know that a good while agou how God chose among you through my mouth that the Gentiles should hear the message of the Mesorah and become faithfully obedientv (to the Torah/Mesorah of the Master)…

Hakham Tsefet is referring to the events that transpired as he stayed in Caesarea. The precedential case of Cornelius will guide us through the next few weeks as we look at the “Gentile Predicament.”

 

Footnotes:

r Caution to our readers this is a Remes commentary not a Peshat, therefore it must be read with a nonliteral mindset!
s Gaston, L. (1987). Paul and the Torah. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. p. 9
t According to the Ramban, “A custom is called chok, this being associated with the expressions: Feed me with ‘chuki’ (my customary) bread; (Proverbs 30:8.) ‘chukoth’ (the customary ways or laws) of heaven and earth. (Jeremiah 33:25.) Custom is also called mishpat (judgment or ordinance) because it is something measured out accurately. A similar usage [of the word mishpat] is found in these verses: So did David, and so has been ‘mishpato’ (his manner) all the while; (I Samuel 27:11.) After the former ‘mishpat’ (manner) when you were his butler; (Genesis 40:13.) And the palace shall be inhabited upon ‘mishpato’ (Jeremiah 30:18.) i.e., upon its ascertained dimension.” Ramban Commentary on the Torah, Vol. II, pp. 209-210, Shilo Publishing House, Inc., New York, 1973.

 

 

Shema Yisrael (and Gentiles) HaShem Our G-d is One!

And He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts through faithful obedience.”

There is One Torah for the Jew and the Gentile alike as it says…

Shmot (Exo.) 12:49) One Torah will be to him that is native born, and unto the Gentile (Ger) that dwells among you. B’Midbar (Num.) 15:15 “The convert will be the same as you…”y

Hakham Tsefet’s words echo Shmot 12:49, B’Midbar 15:15. There is only one Torah, meaning that the Torah Oral and Written constitute the “Torah.” Furthermore, there is not a Torah for the Jewish people and another for the Gentiles. There is One G-d! This is the principal statement of Judaism according to Yeshua and the Hakhamim. The same Torah that applies to the Jewish people applies to the Gentile who wishes to join the commonwealth of Yisrael.

Summary of II Luqas (Acts) 15:6-9

To summarize the first pericope of the Remes portion of our Nazarean Talmud we note…

  •   The Congregation/Bet Din is a Nazarean Assembly of Yeshua’s Talmidim
  •   The Bet Din is a Halakhically acceptable Bet Din
  •   The Jewish Bate Din are the only acceptable Courts for determining acceptable Halakhot
  •  Hakham Tsefet was that principal Sheliach (apostle – emissary, plenipotentiary agent) to the Gentiles
  •   The Gentiles have already accepted the Mesorah (Torah Orally and Written) as elucidated by the Master bythe mouth of Hakham Tsefet
  •   Acceptance of the Mesorah and faithful obedience to the Halakhic mores of the Jewish Bate Din resulted inthe Nefesh Yehudi being given to the Gentiles as it was given to the Jewish people
  •   There is no distinction between the Jew and Gentile who has fully converted to Jewish OrthodoxyIt is imperative that we understand the above noted items before moving on to the next pericope. Therefore, we ask that our readers please rehearse the bulleted items above.

Footnote

u Hakham Tsefet is referring to the days when he was sent to the House of Cornelius.
v Rom 1:5 Through him (Yeshua) we have received chesed and a commission to bring into obedience among all gentiles, [living in] faithfulness [to the Torah] under his (Messiah’s) authority. (It is G-d’s grace, if we may use the term, to bring Gentiles into faithful obedience of the Torah and Oral Torah through the agent of Yeshua our Messiah.)
w B’midbar 15:15 “The convert will be the same as you…” (Translation by Rabbi Eliyahu Touger in Hilchot Melachim 8:10)
x Cf. Psa 10:8 (7)
y Translation by Rabbi Eliyahu Touger in Hilchot Melachim 8:10

 2ND PERICOPE II LUQAS (ACTS) 15:10-12
Three Arguments a Rabbi has with Himself

Scholar X

For “Scholar X” our double pericope and the Council of II uqas (Acts) 15 is an argument against circumcision as admittance into Nazarean Judaism. The “unbearable yoke” mentioned here which neither “we or our fathers were able to bear” is circumcision. The generation in the wilderness was circumcised but they did not circumcise their children or observe Pesach (Passover). Nor is there any record (here) that the “mixed multitude” was circumcised as a “sign” that they had joined the community of G-d.

Rabbi Y

“Rabbi Y” objects to the statements and premise of Scholar X by saying, “the whole verse (pericope) is a fallacy.” His proof is there are millions upon millions of Jewish men throughout history that bore the “sign” of circumcision. Furthermore, the same principle applies to the Muslims. They have circumcised like the B’ne Yisrael with millions bearing that mark in their body.

Rabbi Z

“Rabbis Z” contends that both Scholar X and Rabbi Y, are wrong based on the following criteria. Firstly, these pericope are not a “Written Torah” and therefore, cannot be interpreted from Peshat (the plain literal sense of the text). The text being Remes means that the text is interpreted from an allegorical perspective. As an allegory, we must find another explanation from the language and nomenclature of the text.

Rabbi Z continues saying, furthermore, we must pay careful attention to the text.

Allegory

The word “allegory,” is derived from the Greek “alla,” meaning “other,” and “agoreuo,” meaning, “proclaim.” It originally referred to a figure of speech that Cicero defined as a “continuous stream of metaphors.” According to St. Augustine, allegory is a mode of speech in which “one thing is understood by another.” Allegory differs from the parable in its more systematic presentation of the different features of the idea, which it illustrates, as well as in its contents, which are concerned with the exposition of theoretical truths rather than practical exhortation.

Hakham Tsefet continued saying “So now why are you putting God to the test by placing on the neck of the talmidim (not on the Gentiles) a yoke that neither our fathers nor we have strength to bear?

This passage is the most confused pericope in all of the Nazarean Codicil! Therefore, let us begin with a few introductory remarks.

We must note principally that the mentioned “yoke” is NOT a “Yoke” being placed upon the Gentiles. Hakham Tsefet is saying that the “Yoke” is placed on Yeshua’s Talmidim. At this juncture, we must note that the “talmidim are primarily Jewish or Orthodox Jewish Converts. In other words, without exception, all of Yeshua’s talmidim are “Jewish” by birth or Conversion to Orthodox Judaism.

The Unbearable Yoke

Hakham Shaul through his amanuensis Hillel (Dr Luke) has recorded his words very carefully. Therefore, we must look at them with great care. For our hermeneutic rules, we look to the Thirteen Remes rules compiled by Rabbi Ishmael b. Elisha.

1 Ḳal wa-ḥomer: Identical with the first rule of Hillel – “Argumentum a minori ad majus” or “a majori ad minus”; corresponding to the scholastic proof a fortiori.

2. Gezerah shawah: Identical with the second rule of Hillel – Argument from analogy. Biblical passages containing synonyms or homonyms are subject, however much they differ in other respects, to identical definitions and applications.

  1. The particular implied in the general and excepted from it for pedagogic purposes elucidates the general as well as the particular.
  2. The particular implied in the general and excepted from it on account of the special regulation which corresponds in concept to the general, is thus isolated to decrease rather than to increase the rigidity of its application.

12 Deduction from the context.

The coded language of Hakham Shaul has eluded the best Scholars. This is because they fail to accept that the present materials are Allegory. Secondly, the fail to understand that II Luqas (Acts) is a Remes commentary to the Mishnaic Marqan Peshat. Therefore, we will note that we follow the above cited hermeneutics for the sake of determining the nature of the “unbearable Yoke.” The Torah itself gives us the answer in Sefer D’barim (Deuteronomy).

D’varim (Deut). 22:10 “You will not plow with an ox and a donkey together.”

Hakham Tesfet’s Remes speech perfectly explains the apparent problem dealt with by Yeshua’s Talmidim. The Mishneh Torah (Yad Hazakah) elaborates on the halakhah of plowing with two animals as presented in D’barim (Deut) 22:10.

Kilyaim Chapter 9 Halacha 7 Anyone who performs labor with two species of animals or wild beasts together when one of them is kosher and the other is not kosher is liable for lashes in all places, as [Deuteronomy 22:10] states: “Do not plow with an ox (a Kosher Animal) and a donkey (a non-Kosher animal) together. “Whether one plows, seeds, has them pull a wagon, or a stone, or led them together even with his voice [alone], he is liable for lashes. This is derived from the term “together.” If, however, one [merely] yokes them [to a wagon], he is exempt unless he pulls them or leads them.

Hakham Shaul’s allegorical words in his 2nd letter to the Corinthians has been mistranslated.

2 Co. 6:14 Do not be yoked together with unbelievers (i.e. Gentiles who oppose Torah observance); for what partnership has righteous/generosity and lawlessness (direct opposition to the Torah), or what fellowship has light with darkness?

The Rambam makes the allegory even clearer. The unbearable yoke is a Jew being yoked with a Gentile and forced to “till in the same Torah.” This is an impossible situation. However, Christian scholars have been trying to plow the Torah like a Donkey for nearly two millennia. We have established in earlier materials that the Torah is elucidated “by the Jew first!”

Rom. 1:16 For I am not ashamed of the Mesorah (of the Master), for it is the virtuous power of God bringing redemption to everyone who is faithfully obedient, (to the Mesorah) CHIEFLY by the Jewish Hakhamimz andalso by the Jewish Hakhamim of the Hellenists (in Diaspora).aa

 

Therefore, it is impossible/unbearable for the Jewish Hakhamim and Talmidim of the Master to till in the Torah with a Donkey, i.e. Christian Scholar!

Romans 3:1 Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the benefit of circumcision? Great in every respect. First of all, they were entrusted with the oracles of God (Mesorah).

Hakham Shaul shows that those who are “yoked” with the “unbelieving” Gentiles are “yoked” to those who will not faithfully obey the Torah therefore, lacking righteous/generosity, i.e. the Nefesh Yehudi. We will elaborate on this yoke later in this commentary.

In the Wake of Rebellion

m. Shab 1:4 These are some of the laws which they stated in the upper room of Hananiah b. Hezekiah b. Gurion when they went up to visit him. They took a vote, and the House of Shammai outnumbered the House of Hillel. And eighteen rules did they decree on that very day.

The Gemarah to The Mishnaic Shabbat 1:4 reads as follows…

b. Shab 17a A sword was planted in the Beth HaMidrash and it was proclaimed, He who would enter, let him enter, but he who would depart, let him not depart!bb And on that day Hillel sat submissive before Shammai, like one of the disciples,cc and it was as grievous to Israeldd as the day when the [golden] calf was made.

This situation is amazing when we realize some very interesting facts. Jewish sources are plentiful that tell us Shammai (Vice-president) was the Av Bet Din to Hillel, who served as the Nasi (President) of the Bet Din. The point here is that Shammai has no respect for the chain of command. In other words, Shammai demonstrated despotic power over the B’ne Yisrael rather than following the appropriate system of Hakham/talmid. Shammai usurped authority over Hillel in and illegal manner on this day. The Sin of the Golden calf is not about the eighteen measures mostly. The “Sin of the Golden Calf” here is the sin of the abrogating the principle of hierarchy. Hillel as the Nasi (president) should have been honored rather than being relegated to the position of one of Shammai’s talmidim. It is imperative that we understand this principle before continuing. The structure of the Esnoga/Synagogue is built on a very specific hierarchy. This hierarchy has preserved the Esnoga for millennia. Furthermore, the system of Hakham/Talmid has existed also for millennia. The systematic diffusion of power is expressed in the present Torah Seder with the words of Yitro to his son-in-law Moshe Rabbenu.ee

According to Josephus, Hezekiah b. Gurion (Garon)ff was a murderous robber.gg This would account for the Jerusalem Talmud’s statement in Shabbat 1:4 that the followers of Shammai did murder the disciples of Hillel: “Rabbi Yehoshua taught: The students of Beit Shammai stood below, killing the students of Beit Hillel. We learn: Six of them went up, and the rest stood upon them with swords and spears.”

The meeting place in the House of Hezekiah b. Gurion (Garon) could not have been pro-Gentile. Consequently, we must surmise that the eighteen edicts of Shammai were in direct opposition to Gentile interaction with the Jewish people and their possible Conversion.hh Hillel was kind guiding Gentiles towards the acceptance of the Kingdom/Governance of G-d through the Bate din as opposed to human kings. Shammai, on the other hand, was vehemently opposed to any interaction between Jew and Gentile.ii Hakham Shaul refers to this separation as a “wall of partition”…

Eph. 2:14-16 But you (Gentiles) who were far away are now brought close by your union with Yeshua HaMashiach, his life of peace bringing us into unity by breaking down the middle wall of partitionjj which stood between us. This was accomplished by abolishing the enactments contained in (Shammaite) ordinances (dogma)kk, that he might establish one new bodyll in himself, by the cross, having broken down conflict between the Jewish people and the Gentiles.

It would appear that Yeshua’s Talmidim followed his belief that the Gentiles were destined to enter the Olam HaBa with the Jewish people through conversion.

Matityahu (Matt). 28:19 “Therefore go and make talmidim (disciples) of all the nations (talmudize the Gentiles), immersing (as a pars pro toto to the full rite of conversion) them on the authority of the Father and the Son and the Oral Torah,

The eighteen edicts of Shammai must have dominated the Jewish mindset from 20 B.C.E until about 44-45 C.E. This is the timeframe when Hakham Tsefet enters Cornelius’s house in II uqas (Acts) 10:28.

You know that it is a forbidden thing for a man, a Jew to keep company with or to come And he said to them,unclean).(but his kitchen is near to one of another nation.

But G-d has shown me not to call any man common or unclean

Obviously, this is not a Torah Mandate. It is in fact most likely one of the enactments of Shammai who also determined event the air of Gentile lands “unclean.” Yeshua’s talmidim, beginning with Hakham Tsefet accepted Gentiles as Talmidim though Orthodox Conversion. All Scholars, including our unequally yoked asses accept that Orthodox conversion in the First Century included (for males) circumcision and then immersion. Interestingly the Zohar states that the B’ne Yisrael were circumcised until just before Pesach. Hakham Shaul shows the precedential process of conversion by saying…

1 Co. 10:2 and all were immersed into Moshe in the cloud and in the sea.

Rabbi Yaakov Culi answers our question for us. Hakham Culi tells us that there were 50 miracles, which occurred at the Yam Suf. The first he cites is the “Seven Ananei HaKabod” as being enveloped in the Shekinah (Divine Presence) by seven clouds that coalesced into one solid cloud.nn

In other words, they were immersed in the “Seven Ananei HaKabod.” We learn that they were first circumcised, then they were immersed as a “sign” and they received the Torah at Har Sinai. Therefore, the procedure for reviving the Nefesh Yehudi is established in the B’ne Yisrael. Interestingly, last week we dealt with the “sign” of circumcision. In the readings of the Zohar for last week’s Torah Seder, the material discusses the “sign” of circumcision at length. It associates the phrase “(Exod. 15:26) If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God” with Malkut, the symbol of circumcision.oo How did the B’ne Yisrael merit the Shekinah (the Divine Presence) which resulted in their reception of the Nefesh Yehudi? “Through guarding (shomer) against the impurity of the menstruation.”pp

The Rabbis show that the process of Gentile conversion must match the Jewish acceptance of the yoke of the Kingdom/Governance of G-d. They accepted circumcision, immersion, the acceptance of a sacrifice and the reception of the Oral Torah.qq

Salvation, Entrance into the Olam HaBa through Yeshua

But we who have become faithfully obedient will have admittance into the Olam HaBa through the chesed (mercy) of the Master Yeshua, and they will find admittance into the Olam HaBa in the same way as we did”

Because the donkey cannot till the Torah we have seen the Christian Scholars (Donkeys) try to abrogate the Torah and establish deistic means for “Salvation” or the right to enter the Olam HaBa.

m. San 10:1 All Israelites have a share in the world to come (be Saved), How is it that All Yisrael merits entrance into the Olam HaBa?

b. Baba Mestia 2:11 [If he has to choose between seeking] what he has lost and what his father has lost, his own takes precedence. . . . what he has lost and what his master has lost, his own takes precedence. . . . what his father has lost and what his master has lost, that of his master takes precedence. For his father brought him into this world. But his master, who taught him wisdom, will bring him into the life of the world to come. But if his father is a sage, that of his father takes precedence. [If] his father and his master were carrying heavy burdens, he removes that of his master, and afterward removes that of his father. [If] his father and his master were taken captive, he ransoms his master, and afterward he ransoms his father. But if his father is a sage, he ransoms his father, and afterward he ransoms his master.

Hakham Tsefet is saying that we merit entrance into the Olam HaBa because we listen to the words of the Hakhamim. By being attentive to their words, we are “birthed” into the Olam HaBa. Therefore, Hakham Tsefet’s words make perfect sense. The Gentile will merit entrance into the Olam HaBa by converting to Judaism through the ritual practiced established by the Hakhamim. Upon acceptance of the Halakhot of the Hakhamim, they have embraced and accepted the “Yoke” of the Kingdom/Governance of G-d through the Bate Din as opposed to human kings and presidents.

m. Berakhot 2:2 “Why does [the passage of] Shema precede [that of] And it shall come to pass [if you keep my commandments]? “So that one may first accept upon himself the yoke of the kingdom of heaven and afterwards

may accept the yoke of the commandments. “[Why does] And it shall come to pass [precede] And G-d said? “For And it shall come to pass is recited by both day and night. “[But] And G-d said is recited only by day.”

m. Abot 3:5 R. Nehunya b. Haqqaneh says, “From whoever accepts upon himself the yoke of Torah do they remove the yoke of the state and the yoke of hard labor. “And upon whoever removes from himself the yoke of the Torah (yoke of the Kingdom i.e. recital of the Shema D’barim 6:4f.) do they lay the yoke of the state and the yoke of hard labor.”

This “Yoke” is halakhically acceptable, Baruch HaShem!

Here Is Your Sign

Here is a sign for you, “For my head is filled with dew.” (Petach Eliyahu).

And the whole congregation became silent and listened to BarNechamah and Hakham Shaul describing the marvel of the Gentiles taking up (putting to practice) the signs of God.

If we were to list some of the “otiot” of the Jewish people, we would now see what the Gentiles were accepting.

Circumcision
Shabbat
Revelation at Har Sinai Tefillin

Tsitsit

B’resheet (Gen.) 17: -14
Shmot (Exo) 31:12-17
Shmot (Exo) 19
Shmot (Exo) 13:16, D’barim (Deut) 6:8 and 11:18 B’Midbar (Num) 15: 7-41

We can now  understand that gentiles who were coming to G-D through faithful  obedience to the Mesorah of the  Master accepted the “signs” as a part of their lives in the same way that the B’ne Yisrael did. Hakham Shaul does not tell of the “signs” and “wonders” that G-d was doing but rather the marvel (τέρας – teras wonder) of the Gentiles “taking up” ( οιέω – poieo) the “signs” (ση εῖον – semeion) of G-d.

Categorical Defining of the Unbearable Yoke in detail

We have seen that Hakham Tsefet mentioned by the unbearable Yoke in the opening of the second pericope of our Nazarean Talmud, but what implications does this have in a more detailed way?

Firstly, the Jew cannot plow in the field of the Torah with a Gentile “Scholar” who has not converted to Judaism and been taught the Torah “FIRST” by a Hakham.

Secondly, another unbearable yoke that we, as Jewish people cannot bear, is being taught the Torah by a Gentile from a Gentile/Christian perspective. These situations were arising in places at the end of the First Century. Gentiles who should have been subordinated to Jewish Hakhamim turned the tables and began subjecting Jewish authorities to their doctrines laced with pagan practices.

Thirdly, if Gentiles are not permitted to convert to Judaism an unbearable yoke separates the Jew and Gentile from having “ANY” interaction. This is an impossible situation. We must be able to interact, albeit with appropriate boundaries. We must here note that the global mission of the B’ne Yisrael is to be Kings and Priests.rr If it is the occupation of the B’ne Yisrael to be a Nation “set apart” as a “royal priesthood,” we must be able to interact with the Gentiles, albeit on our terms. This is a cosmic mission of tikun. Should we reject this mission it would also be tantamount to the sin of the Golden calf. The Rabbis teach us that one reason the B’ne Yisrael have been sent into Diaspora is due to their lack of talmudizing the Gentiles. This is the Purim memorandum. The Jewish people in Diaspora must not cease from being Jewish.

b. Pes. 87b R. Eleazar said: Even when the Holy One, blessed be He, is angry, He remembers compassion, for it is said, for I will no more have compassion upon the house of Israel. R. Jose son of R. Hanina said [i.e., deduced] it from this: that I would in any wise pardon them. R. Eleazar also said: The Holy One, blessed be He, did not exile Israel among the nations save in order that proselytes might join them, for it is said: And I will sow her unto Me in the land; (Hos. 2:25) surely a man sows a se’ah in order to harvest many kor! While R. Johanan deduced it from this: And I will have compassion upon her that hath not obtained compassion. (R. Johanan makes this refer to the Gentiles, who in God’s compassion will be given the opportunity. through Israel’s exile, of coming under the wings of the Shechinah. According to Rashi, R. Johanan deduces it from the concluding part of the verse, And I will say to them that are not My people; thou art My people. This passage shows these two Rabbis in favor of proselytes. For the general attitude of the Rabbis towards proselytization v. f. E. art. Proselyte.)

Fourthly, the thesis of “Scholar X” is invalid because in Esther’s day, with the victory of the Jewish people over Haman, Gentiles converted in mass, “allowing themselves to be circumcised.”ss And, as noted above the B’ne Yisrael throughout history have never felt it burdensome to circumcise themselves according to the Torah mandate.

ikewise, millions of Muslims circumcise and have for centuries. Therefore, circumcision cannot be an “unbearable yoke” and it is foolishness to believe so.

Fifthly, as noted in the second point above, an unbearable yoke placed on the Jewish people i.e. Hakhamim is the subjection of the Hakham to the Talmid. This is tantamount to the sin of the “golden calf” mentioned in the Talmudic passage Shabbat 17a (13b-17b). Because Shammai usurped the authority of his Hakham/Nasi, he generated a “golden calf” equal to the sin of the first calf that wrenched the authority from their hands. Furthermore, the reversals of hierarchical order, seen in the story of the “Golden Calf,” shows contempt for Mosaic authority. The phrase “as for this Moses” shows that anarchy had ensued the B’ne Yisrael with its poison.

Furthermore, the mindset of anarchy against the “Oracles of G-d” caused Jeroboam to decide to build two golden calves. One resided in Dan and the other in Beth El. Without lengthy elaboration, we note that the idea of the Golden calf seems to be related to anarchy and usurping the authority of one’s superior. This is most certainly an “unbearable yoke.”

Sixthly, we have seen Hakham Tsefet’s “unbearable yoke” allegorically bespeaks of five crimes against the Jewish people and the Hakhamim. We will also note that it is impossible to interact with the Gentiles who wish to join the Commonwealth of Yisrael without having their submission to Jewish Bate Din. Furthermore, those who misread these passages determine that they are not subject to the Theocratic rule of G-d. As such, they forfeit their right of entrance to the Kingdom/Governance of G-d, and His Messiah through the Bate Din as opposed to human Kings. And, they forfeit their place in the Olam HaBa.

The Midrashic statement of Hakham Matityahu fits well here.
Matityahu (Mat.) 7:2 “And then I (Yeshua) will declare to them, “I never knew you; DEPART FROM ME, YOU

WHO PRACTICE LAWLESSNESS (opposition to or those without the Torah).”

Peroration

The excess of Shammaisim was an unbearable yoke in the first century. It remains an unbearable yoke to this very day. While we most certainly uphold the Torah, Oral and Written we can in no way agree with despotic authoritarian legalism to enforce it. And, while we often express our desires for halakhic observance ad nauseam, our goal is to bring about a balanced Orthodox Jewish life without legalism. We realize that there is a fine line. We also realize that G-d gave His people a head for something other than a place to put a kippah. The wall of boundary between Jew and Gentile is rebuilt and we are still in Diaspora. We must hear the words of Rabbi Johanan and our Master Yeshua and begin to talmudize those of the Nations containing the Nefesh Yehudi, hidden within Gentile vessels, waiting to be discovered and rekindled.

Amen V’Amen

Footnotes:

a The “gathering” is the assembly of the Nazarean Bet Din Gadol (The Greater Nazarean House of Judgment). b We would be a loss to explain these matters were it not for the teachings of the Jewish Sages. The matters at hand a concerning the Gentiles must be deliberated because of the political climate in the First Century. It would appear that earlier generations had no trouble converting the Gentile to Judaism. Albeit we are not given all the details of their conversion without a great deal of research. Likewise, we realize that the requisite deliberation is also related to the “Eighteen Edicts of Shammai” as we have discussed before. We have postulated that Shammai forbade Gentile conversion among the Jewish populations in the First Century. These Edicts were in direct violation of the Torah. Likewise their presence among the Jewish people is evident in the early cases where Yeshua intends that “salvation” (having a place in the Olam HaBa) was for the Jew and Gentile alike. F.F. Bruce accepts that for Gentile conversion to Orthodox Judaism a Gentile must follow the preordained Jewish practice of circumcision ritual circumcision if the Gentile is already circumcised) and ritual immersion as well as acceptance and faithful obedience to the Torah/Oral and Written. Bruce, F. (1990). The Acts of the Apostles, A Greek Text with Introduction and Commentary. (Third Revised and Enlarged Edition ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 329 c Hakham Tsefet is referring to the days when he was sent to the House of Cornelius. d Rom 1:5 Through him (Yeshua) we have received chesed and a commission to bring into obedience among all gentiles, [living in] faithfulness [to the Torah] under his (Messiah’s) authority. (It is G-d’s grace, if we may use the term, to bring Gentiles into faithful obedience of the Torah and Oral Torah through the agent of Yeshua our Messiah.) e Cf. our translation of II Luqas 10:1 – 11:18, connected with Torah readings Keslev 24 – Tebeth 16 f B’midbar 15:15 “The convert will be the same as you…” (Translation by Rabbi Eliyahu Touger in Hilchot Melachim 8:10) g Cf. Psa 10:8 (7) h A verbal tally to our Torah Seder i m. Berakhot 2:2 “Why does [the passage of] Shema precede [that of] And it shall come to pass [if you keep my commandments]? “So that one may first accept upon himself the yoke of the kingdom of heaven and afterwards may accept the yoke of the commandments. “[Why does] And it shall come to pass [precede] And G-d said? “For And it shall come to pass is recited by both day and night. “[But] And G-d said is recited only by day.” m. Abot 3:5 R. Nehunya b. Haqqaneh says, “From whoever accepts upon himself the yoke of Torah do they remove the yoke of the state and the yoke of hard labor. “And upon whoever removes from himself the yoke of the Torah (yoke of the Kingdom i.e. recital of the Shema D’barim 6:4f.) do they lay the yoke of the state and the yoke of hard labor.” m. Shabbat 1:4 These are some of the laws which they stated in the upper room of Hananiah b. Hezekiah b. Gurion when they went up to visit him. They took a vote, and the House of Shammai outnumbered the House of Hillel. And eighteen rules (of Shammai concerning Gentile conversion) did they decree on that very day. b. Shabbath 17a And on that day Hillel sat submissive before Shammai, like one of the disciples, and it was as grievous to Israel as the day when the [golden] calf was made. Now, Shammai and Hillel enacted [this measure], but they would not accept it from them; but their disciples came and enacted it, and it was accepted from them.

 

We can also associate the “Yoke of the Kingdom” with the Yoke of the (Master) Mesorah. (Mt 11:29-30)
Kilyaim Chapter 9 Halacha 7 Anyone who performs labor with two species of animals or wild beasts together when one of them is kosher and the other is not kosher is liable for lashes in all places, as [Deuteronomy 22:10] states: “Do not plow with an ox and a donkey together. “Whether one plows, seeds, has them pull a wagon, or a stone, or led them together even with his voice [alone], he is liable for lashes. This is

derived from the term “together.” If, however, one [merely] yokes them [to a wagon], he is exempt unless he pulls them or leads them.
j b. Baba Mestia 2:11 [If he has to choose between seeking] what he has lost and what his father has lost, his own takes precedence. . . . what he has lost and what his master has lost, his own takes precedence. . . . what his father has lost and what his master has lost, that of his master takes precedence. For his father brought him into this world. But his master, who taught him wisdom, will bring him into the life of the world to come. But if his father is a sage, that of his father takes precedence. [If] his father and his master were carrying heavy burdens, he removes that of his master, and afterward removes that of his father. [If] his father and his master were taken captive, he ransoms his master, and afterward he ransoms his father. But if his father is a sage, he ransoms his father, and afterward he ransoms his master.
k Sabin, M. N. (2006), New Collegeville Bible Commentary: The Gospel According to Mark, Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, p. 62.

l Marcus, J. (2000), The Anchor Bible: Mark 1-8 – A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary, New York: Doubleday, p. 4 6.

m Lindsey R.L. (1969) A Hebrew Translation of the Gospel of Mark: Greek-Hebrew Diglot With English Introduction, Jerusalem: Dugith Publishers, p. 9.

 

n Hanson, A. T. (1980). The New Testament Interpretation of Scripture, London: SPCK, pp. 13-20.
o Marcus, J. (2000), The Anchor Bible: Mark 1-8 – A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary, New York: Doubleday, p. 4 6. p Klausner, J. (1929), Jesus of Nazareth: His Life, Times, and Teaching, New York: Macmillan, p.290.
q Marcus, J. (2000), The Anchor Bible: Mark 1-8 – A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary, New York: Doubleday, p. 4 6.

r Caution to our readers this is a Remes commentary not a Peshat, therefore it must be read with a nonliteral mindset!
s Gaston, L. (1987). Paul and the Torah. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. p. 9
t According to the Ramban, “A custom is called chok, this being associated with the expressions: Feed me with ‘chuki’ (my customary) bread; (Proverbs 30:8.) ‘chukoth’ (the customary ways or laws) of heaven and earth. (Jeremiah 33:25.) Custom is also called mishpat (judgment or ordinance) because it is something measured out accurately. A similar usage [of the word mishpat] is found in these verses: So did David, and so has been ‘mishpato’ (his manner) all the while; (I Samuel 27:11.) After the former ‘mishpat’ (manner) when you were his butler; (Genesis 40:13.) And the palace shall be inhabited upon ‘mishpato’ (Jeremiah 30:18.) i.e., upon its ascertained dimension.” Ramban Commentary on the Torah, Vol. II, pp. 209-210, Shilo Publishing House, Inc., New York, 1973.

 

u Hakham Tsefet is referring to the days when he was sent to the House of Cornelius.
v Rom 1:5 Through him (Yeshua) we have received chesed and a commission to bring into obedience among all gentiles, [living in] faithfulness [to the Torah] under his (Messiah’s) authority. (It is G-d’s grace, if we may use the term, to bring Gentiles into faithful obedience of the Torah and Oral Torah through the agent of Yeshua our Messiah.)
w B’midbar 15:15 “The convert will be the same as you…” (Translation by Rabbi Eliyahu Touger in Hilchot Melachim 8:10)
x Cf. Psa 10:8 (7)
y Translation by Rabbi Eliyahu Touger in Hilchot Melachim 8:10

z The inference is simply stated. The Mesorah MUST be passed down – transmitted from Jewish Hakhamim to talmidim. This includes the “Gentiles” who would teach Torah/Mesorah. They MUST be first taught by a Jewish Hakham!

aa The sense of the verse means, in modern terms that the MESORAH will be carried chiefly by the Orthodox Nazarean Jews, and also by the Reform and Conservative Jews.
bb This was the practice when a vote was taken upon any question; Halevi, Doroth, I, 3, p. 585 n. 18.
cc I.e., the assembly voted against him-of course the actual expression is not to be understood literally.

dd In view of the humility to which Hillel, who was the Nasi, had been subjected. ee Cf. b. Erubin 54b
ff b. Shab. 12a, 13b, 98b, 99a
gg Josephus Ant 14:156-159

 

hh Cf. b. Shab. 31a
ii Ibid, Acts 10:28, where Hakham Tsefet states that it is unlawful for a Jewish person to enter the house of a Gentile. This mandate is not found in the Torah, therefore, we surmise it is a dogma established by the house of Shammai.
jj The middle wall is not the Soreg of the Temple. This “wall of partition” is the dogma of Shammai separating the Jewish people from the Gentile as noted above. The “Soreg” is a wall in the Temple courtyard, which marked the boundaries of the Court of the Gentiles. This is NOT Hakham Shaul’s reference. This breaking down of the “middle wall” is a reference to the Messianic title “Peretz.” The word paretz, wherever used, signifies the breaching of a fence and passing through, just as: I will break down (‘p’rotz’) the fence ‎foereht; (Isaiah 5:5) Why have You broken down (‘paratzta’) her fences? (Psalms 80:13) And in the language of the Rabbis: “Pirtzah (a breach in a wall) calls ‎otrh‎ro‎ rhh‎ rheh .” (Sotah 26a) Indeed, the Sacred anguage (Hebrew is called “the sacred” language.) uses the term p’rotz when referring to anything that oversteps its boundary: And you ‎ htoo‎ reer‎ thrfo(‘upharatzta’) to the west, and to the east; And the man broke forth (‘vayiphrotz ‘) exceedingly.
kk These δόγμασιν are a reference to the eighteen edicts (middot) of Shammai, which separated the Jewish people from the Gentiles by deeming the Gentile “unclean.” cf. Acts 10:28. See Falk, H. (2003). Jesus the Pharisee, A new Look at the Jewishness of Jesus. Wipf and Stock Publishers.
ll The “New Body” is a conjoining of Jews and Gentiles who have converted to Judaism under the authority of Yeshua HaMashiach.
mm We must take caution when trying to understand this phrase. Hakham Tsefet is NOT saying that the Torah forbade interaction between Jew and Gentile. Actually, there are a number of instances in the Torah where we are clearly taught how to interact with the Gentiles. In the present case, we have a dogma, which Shammai established concerning the interaction between Jews and Gentiles. μι also means not permitted or not allowed. It is not a halakhah in any sense.

nn Culi, R. Y. (1979). The Torah Anthology. (M. Lo’ez, Ed., & R. A. Kaplan, Trans.) Brooklyn , New York: Moznaim Publishing Corp. Book 5 p. 213
oo Yochai, R. S. (20003). The Zohar, From the Book of Avraham with Commentary by Rav Yehuda Ashlag. New York: The Kabbalah Center International Inc. Vol 9 p. 292 ff.

pp Ibid p. 296 qq b. Keritot 9a

rr Exod. 19:6 And you will be to me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words, which you will speak/command to the children of Israel.

ss Cf. Esther 8:17, Mid. Rab. Esther 6:2