R”Y Karo 11: Semikha Controversy, I
R”Y Karo 13: Semikha 2- in Favor of Passiveness
Rosh HaShana 16a MISHNAH. AT FOUR SEASONS [DIVINE] JUDGMENT IS PASSED ON THE
WORLD:11 AT PASSOVER IN RESPECT OF PRODUCE; AT PENTECOST IN RESPECT OF FRUIT;
AT NEW YEAR ALL CREATURES PASS BEFORE HIM [GOD] LIKE CHILDREN OF MARON, 12 AS
IT SAYS, ‘HE THAT FASHIONETH THE HEART OF THEM ALL, THAT CONSIDERETH ALL THEIR
DOINGS’;13 AND ON TABERNACLES JUDGMENT IS PASSED IN RESPECT OF RAIN.
The prayer for dew is said in the Mussaf Amidah on the first day of Pesach;14 the prayer for rain is said in the
Mussaf Amidah on Shemini Atzeret,15 which is also the last day of Succoth, and also the day on which the stores of
dew in heaven were opened.16 There is one difference between our prayer for dew and our prayer for rain: We start
praying for rain at the end of the holiday of Shemini Atzeret, but for dew at the beginning of the holiday of Pesach.
Sephardic practice is a little different. We hesitate to interrupt the Amidah for any purpose, so rain and dew are
recited just before the silent Mussaf Amidah. This pattern is norm in Israel for all but Hasidic congregations.
Sephardic practice also varies from Ashkenazi by replacing “the rain to fall and the wind to blow” with “You cause
the dew to fall” to thank HaShem for dew in summer months.
What then will we say that Abraham, our ancestor according to the flesh, has found? For if Abraham was justified by his personal attempts to please God (works), he would have something to boast about, but not even Abraham could boast before God.36 For what does the scripture say?37 “And Abraham faithfully obeyed God, and as a result Abraham called Him (God) a Tsaddiq (just).”38 Now the one who earns his wages does not rely on chesed, but he relies on what he has earned.39 But to the one who does not make personal attempts to please God apart from of what the Torah commands, but who trusts in the One who justifies (forgives) the those who sin,40 His (God’s) faithfulness is attributed as justice, just as David also speaks about the blessing of the person to whom God credits righteousness apart from personal achievements:
COMMENTARY TO HAKHAM SHAUL’S SCHOOL OF REMES
As is the usual case Hakham Shaul’s words are always controversial and most often misunderstood.
Abraham and the Flesh: The question of how to interpret this phrase is a matter of understanding. Most Christian scholars want to use this as a weapon against “works.” However, the statement is simply speaking of Abraham as the natural progenitor of the Jewish people. Furthermore, there is a connection in the idea that Abraham would be the “blessing” of all the families of the earth, which we will see below
G-d is the Tsaddiq: We have cited Gaston60 in the footnotes above. We do not intend to replicate his argument here. Suffice it to say, that Gaston relies on the work and translation of the Ramban concerning exactly who the “righteous/generous” one is. Gaston’s work cites the following material from the Ramban’s work.
B’resheet (Gen) 15:6 AND HE BELIEVED IN THE ETERNAL; AND HE ACCOUNTED IT TO HIM FOR RIGHTEOUSNESS.61
Rashi’s explanation is: The Holy One, blessed be He, accounted it to Abraham for righteousness and merit because of the faith with which he had trusted in Him.
If one is truly interested in learning then one must first submit himself or herself to Judah the “LAWGIVER” otherwise, One, is a law unto himself. Judah – The Lawgiver of God Hebrew: Mechoqeck
There are rules to interpreting the Tanach handed down to us from Moshe Rabbeinu has part of the Torah. One can not on his own interpret the Torah without knowing Hebrew because the Torah is only the notes of those who stood at Sinai for the Lecture.
The character of the benei Yosef, both past and present, can be summed up quite easily by reviewing what exactly the Bible has to say about the Northern Kingdom of Israel. Throughout prophecy the Northern Kingdom is always referred to as Yosef. Therefore whatever is said about the Biblical Northern Kingdom of Israel holds true for the benei Yosef and helps us identify its characteristics.
Yosef as the representative for the Northern Kingdom is described as rebelling against G-d’s chosen House of David monarchy and the Holy Temple, built by Solomon, son of David, but built for all Israel and not just for Yehuda. By rebelling against David, Jerusalem and the Temple, Yosef can best be described as rebelling against the very foundations of what today we define as the religion of Torah Judaism.
The tension, balance, and contrast between Judah and Joseph is very apparent in the way the Torah places the very parallel stories of Joseph and Judah side by side, as well as in the depiction of their direct confrontation, in the Torah portion of Vayigash. Even the names of these two tribes are similar, because Joseph sometimes is called “Yehosef”, carrying the first three letters of G-d’sname, HaShem, just like Judah.
This balance and tension has continued throughout our history, most notably with King David and King Shaul, the two kingdoms of Judah and Israel (also called Ephraim in the Torah), and even eventually with the coming of two Meshichim, ben David and ben Yosef, also known as Mashiach ben Ephraim.
BS”D (B’Siyata D’Shamaya) Aramaic: With the help of Heaven
(Exod. .)6:6-7 -[Mid. Aggadah]
[This] corresponds to the four expressions of redemption that were said in Egypt: “I will take you out…I will save you…I will redeem you…I will take you” a thread of sky- blue [wool]
Ketubim: Psalm 102:1-21
Heb. ֶלת ֵכ ְּת ִתיל ְּפ ,so called because of the bereavement [suffered by the Egyptians] over the loss of their firstborn. The Aramaic translation of ִשּכּול ,bereavement, is ְּכלא ִת[a word similar to Moreover,theplaguestruckthematnight,andthecolorof.]ְּתֵכֶלת,issimilartothecoloroftheskyְּתֵכֶלת which blackens at dusk; its eight threads symbolize the eight days that Israel waited from when they left Egypt until they sang the song at the [Red] Sea. -[Mid. Aggadah]
1 Sh’muel (Samuel) 1:1-18 Now there was a certain man of Ramathaim-zophim, of mount Ephraim, and his name [was] Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephrathite: And he had two wives; the name of the one [was] Hannah, and the name of the other Peninnah: and Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children. And this man went up out of his city yearly to worship and to sacrifice unto HaShem of hosts in Shiloh. And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, the priests of HaShem, [were] there. And when the time was that Elkanah offered, he gave to Peninnah his wife, and to all her sons and her daughters, portions: But unto Hannah he gave a worthy portion; for he loved Hannah: but HaShem had shut up her womb. And her adversary also provoked her sore, for to make her fret, because HaShem had shut up her womb. And [as] he did so year by year, when she went up to the house of HaShem, so she provoked her; therefore she wept, and did not eat. Then said Elkanah her husband to her, Hannah, why weepest thou? and why eatest thou not? and why is thy heart grieved? [am] not I better to thee than ten sons? So Hannah rose up after they had eaten in Shiloh, and after they had drunk. Now Eli the priest sat upon a seat by a post of the temple of HaShem. And she [was] in bitterness of soul, and prayed unto HaShem, and wept sore. And she vowed a vow, and said, HaShem of hosts, if thou wilt indeed look on the affliction of thine handmaid, and remember me, and not forget thine handmaid, but wilt give unto thine handmaid a man child, then I will give him unto HaShem all the days of his life, and there shall no razor come upon his head. And it came to pass, as she continued praying before HaShem, that Eli marked her mouth. Now Hannah, she spake in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard: therefore Eli thought she had been drunken. And Eli said unto her, How long wilt thou be drunken? put away thy wine from thee. And Hannah answered and said, No, my lord, I [am] a woman of a sorrowful spirit: I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but have poured out my soul before HaShem. Count not thine handmaid for a daughter of Belial: for out of the abundance of my complaint and grief have I spoken hitherto. Then Eli answered and said, Go in peace: and the God of Israel grant [thee] thy petition that thou hast asked of him. And she said, Let thine handmaid find grace in thy sight. So the woman went her way, and did eat, and her countenance was no more [sad].
There is no “redemption and atonement” apart from the gift of G-d, i.e. the Torah. Redemption and atonement cannot be produced without obedience to the “Oracles of G-d” i.e. The Oral Torah. When we read of the “works of the Torah/Nomos,” we need some clarity as to what “works” are being discussed. The proper way to understand the phrase “works” in the present conversation on Adam and Chavah’s covering themselves with “fig leaves” is, as we have stated “human attempts to please God.” If we accept that, no human works devoid of the Torah can please G-d we have a perfect understanding of Hakham Shaul’s intention in the Igeret to the Romans below. In other words, when we hermeneutically understand these words aright, we understand that we must join G-d’s gift of the Torah with the idea of “being made whole” (redemption). Works that men contrive or imagine apart from the Torah can NEVER produce “redemption,” bring a man to “spiritual wholeness” or bring us into connection with G-d.